$5,566). This study shows that DVA management provided in a FOC has multiple advantages over that provided in a HOPD.”
“Background: Unexplained infertility
is still a challenging issue as to its causes, appropriate management and treatment. Evidence implicates early embryopathy or implantation failure as likely causes.\n\nObjective: This study aims this website to investigate the effect of local endometrial injury on pregnancy rate in selected unexplained infertile patients.\n\nMaterials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conducted in Shiraz University Infertility Clinic of Ghadir Hospital. A total of 217 women with unexplained infertility aged 23-35 years old were randomly divided into two study groups through block randomization. After superovulation by clomiphene-citrate and gonadotropins and when the dominant follicles reached 18-20 mm, patients were randomly assigned to undergo endometrial local injury at posterior uterine wall by piplle endometrial sampling (n=114) or mock pipette biopsy (n=103) during preovulatory days (when spontaneous urinary LH surge was detected). Then all the patients were instructed to follow a regularly timed intercourse.\n\nResults: Barasertib ic50 The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the endometrial injury group compared to the control
group [17/114 (14.9%) vs. 6/103 (5.8%) (OR: 2.83 95% CI: 1.07-7.49, p=0.03]. The abortion rate was comparable between two groups Pevonedistat (17.64% vs. 14.28%; p=0.701).\n\nConclusion: Local mechanical injury of the endometrium can enhance the uterine receptivity and facilitates the embryo implantation. This simple, easy, and cost effective procedure is worth considering in selective unexplained infertility patients who implantation failure is the likely causes of infertility before complex treatments. This procedure may help reduce psychological tensions and high expenses imposed through such interventions.”
GaN/Si nanoheterostructure is prepared by growing wurtzite GaN on a silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) with a chemical vapor deposition method. The temperature evolution of the photoluminescence (PL) of GaN/Si-NPA is measured and the PL mechanism is analyzed. It is found that the PL spectrum is basically composed of two narrow ultraviolet peaks and a broad blue peak, corresponding to the near band edge emission of GaN and its phonon replicas, and the emission from Si-NPA. No GaN defect-related PL is observed in the as-prepared GaN/Si-NPA. Our experiments prove that Si-NPA might be an ideal substrate for preparing high-quality Si-based GaN nanomaterials or nanodevices.”
“In both humans and mice there are numerous reports of Y chromosome abnormalities that interfere with sex determination. Recent studies in the mouse of one such mutation have identified Y chromosome nondisjunction during preimplantation development as the cause of abnormal testis determination that results in a high frequency of true hermaphroditism.
“Disease modeling with human pluripotent stem cells has come into the public spotlight with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2012 to Drs John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. This discovery has opened the door for the generation of pluripotent stem cells from individuals with disease and the differentiation of these cells into somatic cell types for the study of disease pathophysiology. The emergence of genome-editing technology over the past few years has made it feasible to generate and investigate human cellular disease models with even greater speed and efficiency. Here,
recent technological advances in genome editing, and its utility in human biology and disease studies, are reviewed.”
“The present work reports the development of aqueous gelcasting of ZTA ceramic with a low-toxicity monomer DMAA. The rheological properties and the gelation behaviors EVP4593 order of the slurries for gelcasting were investigated. It was proved that the time available for casting the slurry (idle time) can be controlled by the amounts of initiator. The ZTA green bodies exhibited a mechanical strength as high as 21 MPa. After sintered at 1600 degrees C for 2 h, the highest bending strength and fracture toughness of the sintered ZTA samples were as high as 643.3 +/- 75 MPa and 6.3 +/- 0.3 MPa m(1/2),
respectively. SEM photographs revealed that the green bodies and sintered part GDC-0994 had a uniform microstructure. The volume fraction of tetragonal phase zirconia was as high as 90%. Dense ZTA P5091 green bodies and ceramic parts with complex shaped were
produced through the new gelcasting system. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“Sexual dysfunction is a common problem for women and often impairs their quality of life. Many women are reluctant to discuss these issues with their physicians. The perimenopause presents unique changes in sexual function. At this time, women and their partners undergo numerous physiologic, psychologic, and social/cultural changes. Women should be encouraged to engage their physicians in discussions to help them maintain a satisfying sexual life during this time of change.\n\nTarget Audience: Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians\n\nLearning Objectives: After completion of this article, the reader will be able to describe the types of female sexual disorders, summarize a plan of treatment for the different female sexual disorders, and outline special conditions during the perimenopause which might affect sexual function.”
“This paper exploits the inherent cyclic and periodic free-spectral-range (FSR) properties of arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) routers to construct a two-dimensional (2D) time-spreading and wavelength-group-hopping embedded M-sequence code for optical multiple-access networks. In the proposed codecs (encoder/decoder), a.
Typhimurium infections, and MLVA data based on 16 VNTRs can be useful in establishing clonal structures among isolates. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. Regarding the efficacy of joint lavage in the treatment of knee OA, we evaluated reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of joint lavage alone or joint lavage combined with IA steroid injection to alleviate pain and improve function in knee OA.\n\nMethods. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled
Trials for all reports published since Selleck 3-deazaneplanocin A 1966 of RCTs, evaluating either the efficacy of joint lavage alone or of joint lavage combined with steroid injection for knee OA on pain intensity and physical function. The time point for evaluation was a priori fixed at 3 months. Effect JNK-IN-8 chemical structure size (ES) was calculated to compare results across studies.\n\nResults. From the 49 articles identified, reports of six RCTs were analysed
for a total of 855 OA patients (511 in the treatment group and 344 in the control group). The pooled ES of the joint lavage vs placebo was not significant for pain intensity [ES = 0.17 (-0.37, 0.71)] or physical function [ES = -0.15 (-0.34, 0.04)], nor was the pooled ES of joint lavage combined with steroid injection vs joint lavage alone significant for pain intensity [ES = -0.82 (-2.47, 0.82)] or physical function [ES = 0.09 (-0.28, 0.45)].\n\nConclusions. This meta-analysis of RCTs investigating
joint lavage for knee OA suggests that at 3 months, (i) joint lavage alone selleck chemicals does not provide significant improvement in pain or function and (ii) the combination of joint lavage and IA steroid injection is no more efficacious than lavage alone.”
“Background: Type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism may influence the PAI-1 expression. High plasma levels of PAI-1 are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD).\n\nObjective: This study investigated the influence of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism on plasma PAI-1 levels and its association with CAD assessed by coronary angiography.\n\nMethods: Blood sample of 35 individuals with angiographycally normal coronary arteries, 31 individuals presenting mild/moderate atheromatosis, 57 individuals presenting severe atheromatosis and 38 healthy individuals (controls) were evaluated. In patients and controls, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was determined by PCR amplification using allele-specific primers. Plasma PAI-1 levels were quantified by ELISA assay (American Diagnostica).\n\nResults: No difference was found between groups regarding age, gender and body mass index. Plasma PAI-1 levels and 4G/4G genotype frequency were significantly higher in the severe atheromatosis group compared to the other groups (p<0.001). Furthermore, patients with 4G/4G genotype (r=0.28, p<0.
“Introduction The Department of Surgery at the University of Arizona has created an intensive laparoscopic training course for surgical residents featuring a combined simulation laboratory and live swine model. We herein report the essential components to design
and implement a rigorous training course for developing laparoscopic skills in surgical residents.\n\nMaterials and methods At our institution, we developed a week-long pilot intensive laparoscopic training course. Six surgical residents (ranging from interns to chief residents) participate in the structured, multimodality course, without any clinical responsibilities. It consists of didactic instruction, laboratory training, practice in the simulation laboratory, and performance (under the direction of attending laparoscopic find more surgeons) of surgical procedures on pigs. The pigs are anesthetized and attended by veterinarians and technicians, and then euthanized at the end of each day. Three teams of two different training-level residents are paired. Daily briefing, debriefing, and analysis are performed at the close of each session. A written paper survey is completed at the end of the course.\n\nResults This report describes the results of first 36 surgical
residents trained in six courses. Preliminary data reveal that all 36 now feel more comfortable handling laparoscopic instruments and positioning trocars; they now perform buy CX-6258 laparoscopic surgery with greater confidence and favor having the course as part of their educational curriculum.\n\nConclusion Cediranib A multimodality intensive laparoscopic training course should become a standard requirement for surgical residents, enabling them to acquire basic and advanced laparoscopic skills on a routine basis.”
“In some cases of degloving injury, as a result of multiple venous anastomoses formed on the peripheral and proximal sides, the detached flap skin did survive, though with patchy necrosis. On the basis of this experience, the skin and soft-tissue defects after removing skin cancer were closed
with an anterolateral thigh true perforator flap, measuring 4 x 5 cm in size, which is nourished by venous blood. The subcutaneous vein on the peripheral side of the defect was anastomosed to the perforator artery, and the veins on the proximal side of the defects were anastomosed to the concomitant veins of the perforator. After surgery, to ensure a sufficient blood flow to the flap, the affected limb was positioned lower than the heart for 1 week. To prevent microthrombus in the perforator branch and the flap, preventive anticoagulant therapy was performed. The transplanted flap had marked cyanosis for a few days, but turned pinkish on the sixth day after surgery. The flap survived completely.
Thus, this series of molecules are suitable for the detection of anions in the narrow window of
the Hofmeister series. Out of all the anions, only fluoride causes vivid colour changes from yellow to red to reddish orange and finally to blue, irrespective of the increasing aromaticity, induction and positional isomeric effect of the substituent that is attached to the guanidinium moiety. Interestingly, S9 has shown the ability to sense distinctly both F- and AcO- colourimetrically. Further S10, a sensor attached with indole functionality shows selective sensing of F- colourimetrically with a NIR signature at similar to 930 nm though both these outputs are very unstable in nature. Selleckchem BMS-777607 Stability constants for complex formation of S1-S10 (except S5) with F, AcO are calculated by UV-vis titration experiments. Finally single crystal X-ray structural studies on the species 1 formed upon treating S6 with sodium fluoride confirms -NH deprotonation, whereas the reaction of S6 and S2 with sodium benzoate shows 1 : 1 host : guest binding that results in complexes 2 and 3 respectively.”
“Background: Primary osteoporosis is a rare childhood-onset skeletal
condition whose pathogenesis has been largely unknown. We have previously shown that primary osteoporosis can be caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene, and the role of LRP5 is further investigated here.\n\nMethods: LRP5 was analyzed in 18 otherwise healthy children and adolescents who had evidence of osteoporosis (manifested as reduced bone mineral density i.e. BMD, recurrent peripheral fractures and/or MI-503 molecular weight vertebral compression fractures) but who lacked the clinical features of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) or other known syndromes linked to low BMD. Also 51 controls were analyzed. Methods used in
the genetic analyses included direct sequencing HIF-1 activation and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). In vitro studies were performed using luciferase assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to examine the effect of two novel and three previously identified mutations on the activity of canonical Wnt signaling and on expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-Htr1b).\n\nResults: Two novel LRP5 mutations (c. 3446 T > A; p.L1149Q and c. 3553 G > A; p.G1185R) were identified in two patients and their affected family members. In vitro analyses showed that one of these novel mutations together with two previously reported mutations (p.C913fs, p.R1036Q) significantly reduced the activity of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Such reductions may lead to decreased bone formation, and could explain the bone phenotype. Gut-derived Lrp5 has been shown to regulate serotonin synthesis by controlling the production of serotonin rate-limiting enzyme, Tph1. LRP5 mutations did not affect Tph1 expression, and only one mutant (p.
LSCM retains excellent stability in both oxidizing and reducing environments at high operating temperatures, which makes it adoptable as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes. However, selleck products the relatively inferior catalytic activity compared to Ni composite anodes limits the applicability in SOFC systems. Nanocomposite La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-delta-Y0.16Zr0.84O1.92 (LSCM-YSZ) anodes are investigated to improve the catalytic activity by effective dispersion of LSCM nanoparticles on stable YSZ backbones. LSCM-YSZ nanocomposite powders were synthesized via a polymerizable complex method. LSM-YSZlyttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)vertical
bar LSCM-YSZ unit cells were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and a current interruption method. Compositional mapping analysis on the LSCM-YSZ nanocomposite anode demonstrates uniform dispersion of LSCM nanoparticles and phase connectivity between LSCM and YSZ, resulting in a lower electrode polarization resistance of 1.82 Omega cm(2) and greater peak power density of 177 mW cm(-2) at 850 degrees C. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“Many animals have individual and social mechanisms for combating pathogens. Animals may exhibit short-term physiological tradeoffs between social and individual immunity because the latter is often energetically costly. Genetic tradeoffs between selleck these two traits can also occur if mutations that
enhance social immunity
diminish individual immunity, or vice versa. Physiological tradeoffs between individual and social immunity have been previously documented in insects, but there has been no study of genetic tradeoffs involving these traits. There is strong evidence that some genes SB525334 influence both innate immunity and behaviour in social insects -a prerequisite for genetic tradeoffs. Quantifying genetic tradeoffs is critical for understanding the evolution of immunity in social insects and for devising effective strategies for breeding disease-resistant pollinator populations. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis of a genetic tradeoff between social and individual immunity in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. First, we estimated the relative contribution of genetics to individual variation in innate immunity of honey bee workers, as only heritable traits can experience genetic tradeoffs. Second, we examined if worker bees with hygienic sisters have reduced individual innate immune response. We genotyped several hundred workers from two colonies and found that patriline genotype does not significantly influence the antimicrobial activity of a worker’s hemolymph. Further, we did not find a negative correlation between hygienic behaviour and the average antimicrobial activity of a worker’s hemolymph across 30 honey bee colonies. Taken together, our work indicates no genetic tradeoffs between hygienic behaviour and innate immunity in honey bees.
However, the functional significance of theta oscillations in human memory processes remains largely unknown. Here, we review studies in human and animals examining how scalp-recorded FMT relates to memory behaviors and also their possible neural generators. We also discuss models of the functional relevance of theta oscillations to memory processes and suggest promising directions for future research. (C) 2013 PKA inhibitor Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Our aim is to describe the effect of circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies on the endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and early structural changes of the vascular wall that surround peripheral arterial disease. For this purpose, an observational translational
controlled selleckchem study was carried out. We included 32 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease and 16 healthy control individuals with no previous autoimmune disease. We assessed the flow-mediated arterial dilatation as a marker of endothelial function, the carotid intima-media thickness and the plasma levels of C-reactive protein in all the subjects. Circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies were detected with indirect immunofluorescence. We found a higher prevalence of these autoantibodies
in patients than in controls (40% vs. 6%; P=0.01). Flow-mediated arterial dilatation was lower in subjects with anti-endothelial cell antibodies [3.10% (0-5.05%) vs. 12.54% (6.74-18.40%); P<0.01]. Carotid intima-media thickness [1.04 (0.78-1.17) vs. 0.72 (0.54-1.02) mm; P=0.01] and C-reactive protein level [10.00 (3.50-14.80) A-1210477 cost vs. 3.00 (3.00-6.95) mg/l; P=0.01] were higher in subjects seropositive for these autoantibodies. We concluded that circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies could be associated with peripheral arterial disease in individuals with no
previous autoimmune disease; however, further prospective studies are required to establish a causal relationship. (c) 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“The effects of different levels of dietary crude protein on the development, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and total midgut protease activity of honey bees were investigated in the study. A total of 30 colonies of bees with sister queens were used in the test. Dietary treatments were pure rape pollen (Control) and pollen substitutes (PS) with crude protein (CP) levels at 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35% (designated as PS15, PS20, PS25, PS30, and PS35), respectively. We compared the effects of these diets on honey bees by measuring diet consumption, bee development (egg hatch, pupation success, and pupal weight), and the protein content of emergent adult bees, their antioxidant status and the activity of their midgut digestive proteases. Bees consumed significantly more (P < 0.001) natural pollen than any PS, and bees fed PS had similar diet consumption over the entire experimental period.
The composite ceramics with 50 wt % PLZST content GM6001 mouse possess a considerable FE-to-AFE phase transition electric field of 130 kV/cm and a high saturation polarization of 49.8 uC/cm(2) at room temperature. As a result, the maximum value of energy storage density is obtained to be 4.65 J/cm(3). (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“Exposure to natural disasters has been linked to a range of adverse outcomes, including mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], depression), declines in role functioning (e.g., occupational difficulties), and physical health problems (e.g., somatic complaints). However, prior research and theory suggest that the
modal postdisaster response in each of these domains is resilience, defined as low levels of symptoms or problems in a given outcome over time, with minimal elevations that are limited to the time period during the disaster and its immediate aftermath. However, the extent to which disaster survivors exhibit mental health wellness (resilience across multiple mental health conditions) or general wellness (resilience across mental health, physical health, and role functioning domains)
remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to quantify mental health and general wellness, and to examine predictors of each form of wellness, in a three-wave selleck population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Latent class growth analysis was used to determine the frequency of resilience on four outcomes (PTSS: 74.9%; depression: 57.9%; functional
impairment: 45.1%; days of poor health: 52.6%), and cross-tabulations were used to determine the frequency of mental health wellness (51.2%) and general wellness (26.1%). Significant predictors of both mental health and general wellness included lower pen-event emotional reactions and higher community-level collective efficacy; loss of sentimental possessions or pets and disaster-related financial loss were negative predictors of mental health wellness, and loss of personal property was a negative predictor of general wellness. The results suggest that studies focusing on a single postdisaster outcome may have overestimated the prevalence of mental health and general GSK 4529 wellness, and that pen-event responses, personal property loss and collective efficacy have a cross-cutting influence across multiple domains of postdisaster functioning. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with shorter breastfeeding (BF) duration. Whether pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with other aspects of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) has not been investigated. We used data from 370 children born January 1999-September 2001 in a semi-urban community in Morelos, Mexico, where information on how they were fed was available at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age.
\n\nConclusions\n\nThe gene expression levels in rat pulp
tissue changed during fluorosis. The gene expression 3-deazaneplanocin A price profiles between the fluorotic model and the normal group will help to understand the multiple pathogenic mechanisms for the altered mineralization patterns observed in fluorotic dentine.”
“3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is a widespread pollutant. Some bacteria and fungi have been reported to degrade TCP, but the gene clusters responsible for TCP biodegradation have not been characterized. In this study, a fragment of the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH(2))-dependent monooxygenase gene tcpA was amplified from the genomic DNA of Ralstonia sp. strain T6 with degenerate selleck chemicals primers. The tcpA disruption mutant strain T6-Delta tcpA could not degrade TCP but could degrade the green intermediate metabolite 3,6-dihydroxypyridine-2,5-dione (DHPD), which was generated during TCP biodegradation
by strain T6. The flanking sequences of tcpA were obtained by self-formed adaptor PCR. tcpRXA genes constitute a gene cluster. TcpR and TcpX are closely related to the LysR family transcriptional regulator and flavin reductase, respectively. T6-Delta tcpA-com, the complementation strain for the mutant strain T6-Delta tcpA, recovered the ability to degrade TCP, and the strain Escherichia coli DH10B-tcpRXA, which expressed the tcpRXA gene cluster, had the ability to transform TCP to DHPD, indicating that tcpA is a key gene in the initial step of TCP degradation and that TcpA dechlorinates TCP to DHPD. A library of DHPD degradation-deficient mutants of strain T6 was obtained by random transposon mutagenesis. The fragments flanking the Mariner transposon were amplified and sequenced, and the dhpRIJK gene FG-4592 in vitro cluster was cloned. DhpJ could transform DHPD to yield an intermediate product, 5-amino-2,4,5-trioxopentanoic acid (ATOPA), which was further degraded
by DhpI. DhpR and DhpK are closely related to the AraC family transcriptional regulator and the MFS family transporter, respectively.”
“Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium lactis HY8101 on insulin resistance induced using tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells and on the KK-A(Y) mouse noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model. Methods and Results: The treatment using HY8101 improved the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and translocation of GLUT4 via the insulin signalling pathways AKT and IRS-1(Tyr) in TNF-alpha-treated L6 cells. HY8101 increased the mRNA levels of GLUT4 and several insulin sensitivity-related genes (PPAR-c) in TNF-alpha-treated L6 cells. In KK-A(Y) mice, HY8101 decreased fasting insulin and blood glucose and significantly improved insulin tolerance.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 303: L528-L538, 2012. First published June 26, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00167.2012.-Protein-S-glutathionylation (PSSG) is an oxidative modification of reactive cysteines that has emerged as an important player in pathophysiological processes. Under physiological conditions, the thiol transferase, glutaredoxin-1 (Glrx1) catalyses deglutathionylation. Although we previously demonstrated that Glrx1 expression is increased in mice with allergic inflammation, the impact of Glrx1/PSSG in the development of allergic airways disease remains unknown. In the present study we examined the impact of genetic ablation of Glrx1 in the pathogenesis
of allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness see more (AHR) in mice. Glrx1(-/-) or WT mice were subjected to the antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), and parameters of allergic airways disease were evaluated 48 h after three challenges, and 48 h or 7 days after six challenges with aerosolized antigen. Although no clear increases in PSSG were observed in WT mice in response to OVA, marked increases were detected in lung tissue of mice lacking Glrx1 48 h following six antigen challenges. Inflammation and expression of proinflammatory mediators were decreased in Glrx1(-/-) mice, dependent on the time of analysis. WT and Glrx1(-/-) mice demonstrated comparable increases in AHR 48 h after three or six challenges with OVA. However, 7 days
Z-IETD-FMK postcessation of six challenges, parameters of AHR in Glrx1(-/-) mice were resolved to control levels, accompanied by marked decreases
in mucus metaplasia and LY2606368 expression of Muc5AC and GOB5. These results demonstrate that the Glrx1/S-glutathionylation redox status in mice is a critical regulator of AHR, suggesting that avenues to increase S-glutathionylation of specific target proteins may be beneficial to attenuate AHR.”
“Health effects associated with air pollution at exposure levels below toxicity may not be directly related to level of exposure, but rather mediated by perception of the air pollution and by top-down processing (e.g., beliefs that the exposure is hazardous). The aim of the study was to test a model that describes interrelations between odorous air pollution at non-toxic exposure levels, perceived pollution, health risk perception, annoyance and health symptoms.\n\nA population-based questionnaire study was conducted in a Swedish community of residents living near a biofuel facility that emitted odorous substances. Individuals aged 18-75 years were selected at random for participation (n = 1,118); 722 (65 %) agreed to participate. Path analyses were performed to test the validity of the model.\n\nThe data support a model proposing that exposure level does not directly influence annoyance and symptoms, and that these relations instead are mediated by perceived pollution and health risk perception.