Following, extracts were filtered (Whatman No 1) and concentrate

Following, extracts were filtered (Whatman No. 1) and concentrated under vacuum at 70 °C using a rotoevaporator (Buchi R-210 Rotavapor, Buchi Co., New Castel, DE). The concentrate was resuspended in 5 ml methanol and analysed by HPLC. For quantification of coumarin, 1 g of freeze-dried samples was suspended in 10 ml of extraction solution (ethanol:water at 1:1 ratio), macerated until completely homogeneous, and allowed to rest for 24 h at room temperature. The material was filtered (Whatman No. 1) and the extract obtained was analyzed by HPLC. Analysis were conducted in HPLC

Shimadzu LC-20A system equipped with LC-20DA pump, manual injector with a fixed volume of 100 μL, CTO-20A column oven set at 40 °C, running LC Solution software with UV–Vis detector model SPD-20A. The column was a Nova Pack C18 (CLC-ODS, 3 μm; 4.6 × 250 mm). For resveratrol quantification, the method described by Sautter et al. (2005), with modifications, was selleck inhibitor used. Briefly, the mobile phase consisted of water acidified to pH 2.9 using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) (Solution A) and acetonitrile (solution B) in a ratio of 75A:25B, isocratic with a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min, with an injection volume of 100 μL, UV detection at 306 nm, and a total run time of 15 min per sample at 40 °C. For coumarin quantification, the mobile phase consisted of water (Solution

A) and methanol (Solution B) in a ratio of 60A:40B, isocratic with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min,

injection volume of 100 μl, UV detection at 274 nm, C1GALT1 and a total run time of 15 min per sample at 40 °C. The parameters obtained in the validation of the methods are shown on Table 1. Standard curves for resveratrol and coumarin were prepared under the same conditions. Resveratrol (0.46, 0.092, 0.046, 0.0184 and 0.0092 mg/ml) and coumarin (43.6, 21.8, 10.9, 5.45 and 2.73 mg/ml) standards were diluted in methanol. Initially, sample injections were made with resveratrol and coumarin standards, using the internal standard method, in order to identify these compounds in the sample runs. The co-injection consisted of sample and standard compound in a ratio of 1:1 with standard concentrations of 0.4 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml in methanol for resveratrol and coumarin, respectively. This experiment was based on a completely randomized design with equal replications. For all analyses, determinations were made in triplicate as independent experiments. Data analysis was performed using JMP v. 9 software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) for anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, β-carotene, lycopene, total phenolics, resveratrol, and coumarin. Differences between variables were tested for significance by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significantly different means (p < 0.05) were separated by the Tukey’s test. Data are presented as mean ± SD (standard deviation).

30° and methanol flow rate of 20 μL min−1 The oil sample (2 μL)

30° and methanol flow rate of 20 μL min−1. The oil sample (2 μL) was placed directly onto the paper surface (brown Kraft paper) and the mass spectra accumulated over 60 s and scanned in the 50–1200 m/z

range. The TLC identification of the FFAs and acylglycerols after the acidolysis reactions showed that the FAs were effectively split after the purification process employed (Section 2.5). No bands corresponding to the FFAs and no expressive PD98059 amounts of other intermediary acylglycerols (MAG and DAG) were found. Thus the FA composition and the new TAG profiles were determined by GC and by EASI-MS, respectively, in both the original soybean oil samples and in the SLs after the purification step. Table 2 shows the main FA composition of the original soybean oil and of the purified SLs (after the acidolysis reaction), and also the n-6/n-3 FAs under the different experimental BMS-387032 concentration conditions. The FA composition found for the soybean oil was in agreement with other studies (Costa et al., 1999 and Firestone, 2006). The major FAs were linoleic

acid (18:2 n-6), which accounted for 56.5% of the total amount of FA, followed by oleic acid (18:1 n-9, 25.8%) and palmitic acid (16:0, 11.4%). The ratio between the sums of the n-6 and n-3 FAs (n-6/n-3 ratio) in the soybean oil was about 11:1. Enzymatic acidolysis showed a positive change in the n-6/n-3 FA ratio, which means there was an increase in the n-3 family of FAs and a decrease in the n-6 FAs, provided by incorporation of the PUFA from the Brazilian sardine oil. The highest EPA + DHA incorporations Liothyronine Sodium (9.2% and 9.3% of the total FAs) into the soybean oil were achieved under the experimental conditions of runs 5 and 6. Under these conditions, the SLs showed lower

linoleic acid contents when compared to their contents in the original soybean oil (56.5% in the original oil versus 38.5% and 37.9% in runs number 5 and 6, respectively), leading to a decrease in the n-6/n-3 FA ratio to approximately 3:1. The saturated FAs, especially palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids were also incorporated into the soybean oil, as shown by an increase in their contents in the SLs, since fish oils have significant amounts of these FAs. These values were achieved by using a sardine-FFA:SO mole ratio of 3:1 and an initial water content of the enzyme of 0.87% (w/w). Although similar values were achieved under both experimental conditions (runs 5 and 6), the most favourable condition, due to the shorter reaction time of 12 h, was the experimental condition of run number 5. Under the other experimental conditions, the incorporation of EPA + DHA was lower than 4.0% of the total FA composition. EPA incorporation was higher than DHA incorporation in most runs (except for run 7), possibly because the EPA content of the fish oil used in the experiments (19.8%) was higher than its DHA content (11.4%).

The majority of ECGs in the enrolled population were noninterpret

The majority of ECGs in the enrolled population were noninterpretable for ischemia, which is common in patients with heart failure, and only a minority had angina while performing exercise in this study. Confining enrollment to heart failure patients with evidence of reproducible

exercise-induced ischemia on ECG and/or exercise-limiting angina while at the same click here time increasing the sample size to assess the question of exercise capacity would have made execution of the study unfeasible, however (15). A limitation of the present study is that the troponin assays used at the time of this study did not meet current standards for troponin assays as required for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. The present study supports the conclusion that omecamtiv mecarbil did not increase the likelihood of myocardial ischemia in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and angina and serves as a prelude to the chronic dosing of omecamtiv mecarbil in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure. Nonetheless, vigilance is warranted as the drug is tested in larger populations of patients that include those with underlying coronary disease. Results of this study, together with previous studies evaluating

the pharmacodynamic effects of omecamtiv mecarbil in healthy volunteers and patients with stable heart failure 2 and 3, support further clinical assessment of omecamtiv mecarbil in patients with acute and chronic heart failure. GW3965 in vitro A Phase II trial of ∼600 patients with acute heart failure and LV dysfunction who received omecamtiv mecarbil IV was recently completed (NCT01300013). Oral formulations of omecamtiv mecarbil are currently under evaluation to

enable the assessment of the potential benefits of omecamtiv mecarbil related to symptoms, quality of life, exercise capacity, morbidity, and mortality in larger and longer clinical trials. The authors thank the Metalloexopeptidase patients who volunteered for treatment in this trial as well as their families. They also thank Edward Mancini of Amgen Inc. and Julia R. Gage on behalf of Amgen Inc. for assistance with writing the manuscript. “
“B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is in widespread use as a “rule-out” diagnostic test in patients with suspected heart failure. However, it is not accurate enough to be a “rule-in” test because it is known to produce many false positive results. False positives are also seen when BNP is used for a different diagnostic purpose. For example, BNP can also be used to identify primary prevention patients who are already harboring silent but potentially lethal cardiac abnormalities. Although it performs well overall (c-statistic 0.78) in this latter regard, false positives are still common, that is, 43% of those in the highest tertile of BNP have no apparent cardiac abnormality on phenotyping (1).

Jonsson, personal observation) Based on literature and field exp

Jonsson, personal observation). Based on literature and field expert knowledge we a priori classified lichens sensitive to light (and associated climatic conditions like drought) and lichens promoted by open habitats, and both groups increased in number with time. This may seem contradictory but for some species

it may be explained by a delayed response, i.e. a time-lag between an environmental change and extinction. MAPK Inhibitor Library Some species sensitive to light, e.g. Mycobilimbia carneoalbida and M. epixanthoides still survived on the north side of the stem in young forests, although often in a worse state and in smaller populations (F. Jonsson, personal observation, see also Hedenås and Hedström 2007). The increase could be due to an overestimation of the sensitivity of some lichens to the disturbance caused by logging operations. Old, large solitary aspens have been almost non-existing in young production forests regenerating after clear-cutting, introduced in the 1950s. The recent applications of retention approaches have restored AZD8055 concentration trees in such an environment, and consequently it is a habitat with associated species communities, including

light- and drought-sensitive species, unknown to most lichenologists. The total number of cyanolichens did not differ between the two age classes. Leptogium teretiusculum was much more common in the young forest and Arctomia delicatula, Collema occultatum var. populinum, Leptochidium albociliatum, L. subtile, Peltigera didactyla and Peltigera membranacea

were only found in this age class. Collema nigrescens and Parmeliella triptophylla on the other hand were more common on the clearcuts. There are different opinions regarding cyanolichens oxyclozanide and their ability to cope with disturbances. According to Hedenås and Hedström (2007) and also Coxson and Stevenson (2005) cyanolichens should be more tolerant to changes in microclimate following a disturbance such as logging, while Richardson and Cameron (2004) found that cyanolichens were sensitive to disturbance. In one study two crustose green-algae lichens were less common on retained trees than on trees in old forest, while three cyanolichens showed an opposite pattern ( Hedenås and Hedström, 2007). The most important conclusion from our results regarding cyanolichens is that they can cope with logging disturbance quite well, at least for 10–16 years. This could have several possible explanations: (1) clear-felling does not affect the cyanolichen community; epiphytic cyanolichens are quite disturbance-resistant and only need their host tree (2) there might be a time-lag in their response or (3) truly disturbance-sensitive cyanolichens have gone extinct already from the old forest or prior to the inventory. Spore-dispersed lichens were more numerous in the young forest, as we expected.

In China, there is an acceleration of conservation work on ‘plant

In China, there is an acceleration of conservation work on ‘plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP)’ ( Ma et al., 2013). The concept was first

promulgated in this website Yunnan Province, SW China, and is now providing a focus for several national and regional-level conservation strategies. PSESP are recognised on the basis of low numbers of individuals due to serious human disturbance in recent times, a restricted habitat and an extremely high risk of extinction. The national list includes 120 species, of which about 80 are long-lived perennials (trees and cycads). For the top 20 PSESP for conservation priorities in Yunnan Province, 17 are long-lived perennials (15 tree species in 11 families and 2 species of cycad). One of the species, Acer yangbiense (yangbi maple), with only five

individuals recorded, has been hand-pollinated and the resulting seeds used to produce more than 1,000 saplings now growing in the Kunming Botanical Garden. Following the example of Malaysia in establishing in situ protection areas for Rafflesia keithii (monster flower), an in situ SCH727965 price demonstration base for PSESP reintroductions has been created in SE Yunnan. As noted above (Section 4.3), very little information is available on the seed biology (and morphology) of these species; although germination studies have started on Manglietiastrum sinicum (huagaimu; Zheng and Sun, 2009). One outcome of attempting to answer the questions raised at the start of this article, is that the following needs for scientific endeavour and policy intervention have become evident: 1. National programmes should continue to support the conservation work of botanic gardens and other institutes engaged in the introduction to living collections of forest species, particularly threatened trees; back-up

conservation in seed banks should be accelerated and consideration given to a repository for international tree seed collections. “
“The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa [Denis and Schiffermüller] (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae) hereafter referred to as PPM, is, by far, the most important forest pine defoliator in Southern Europe and North Africa, in terms of its temporal occurrence, geographic range and socioeconomic impact. PPM causes periodic outbreaks, Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase with high rates of defoliation, at intervals of two to ten years ( Robinet, 2006 and Hódar et al., 2012). It is found in all the countries of the Western Mediterranean ( Huchon and Démolin, 1971) and is currently spreading to higher latitudes, probably in response to climate change, with increasing winter temperatures ( Battisti et al., 2005 and Robinet and Roques, 2010). PPM larvae feed on pine needles during the fall and winter. This significantly decreases tree growth on the short-term (1–2 years after defoliation), even at low levels of defoliation ( Jacquet et al., 2012 and Jacquet et al., 2013). However, trees seem able to recover on the long-term if defoliation is not so frequent ( Linares et al.

As mentioned previously, when and how to use a particular ACT tec

As mentioned previously, when and how to use a particular ACT technique depends on a given client and the skills and awareness that the client already possesses. For example, if the client is already aware find more that she engages in binge eating in response to unwanted private experiences, techniques designed to highlight the awareness of the unworkability of binge eating, such as a Chinese finger trap exercise, are suitable. If the client does not have such awareness, a brief functional assessment may be helpful to build the awareness of the functional association between private experience,

problematic behaviors, and their long-term and short-term consequences. Similarly, it is crucial for the therapist to have a keen 5-FU clinical trial awareness of the difference between the intended function of a given technique and the actual effect of that technique. In other words, the functional and contextual adherence to the ACT protocol, as opposed to content-focused protocol adherence, is crucial for treatment effectiveness. For example, the mindfulness exercise with the raisin used in the present study can be anxiety-provoking for some clients, despite the exercise’s intended function to promote gentle awareness in the context of eating. Simply delivering the exercise in a topographically accurate manner is not the goal of therapy. Rather, the goal is to influence the process

that the exercise is designed to influence (e.g., full and gentle awareness of the experience of eating Stem Cells inhibitor and the awareness of the self who notices the experience). If a given exercise does not produce the intended effect, it is important for the therapist to look for the reasons why it did not work and

adjust therapy accordingly. The current study adds to the growing area of research that suggests using mindfulness and acceptance therapies may be particularly beneficial for disordered eating concerns (Baer et al., 2005, Juarascio et al., 2010, Kristeller et al., in press and Wiser and Telch, 1999). Specifically, the central strategies of ACT may be particularly useful when working with individuals who engage in binge eating because they target greater functioning while promoting alternatives for relating to distressing internal events. As such, ACT and other mindfulness and acceptance therapies may be beneficial interventions for BED; however, more research is needed (Masuda & Hill, 2013). The current study also has several limitations. First, the decision to use 10 sessions as a format was not empirically determined and instead based on the formats of other acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions. For example, while Participant 1 reported that the length of therapy was adequate, Participant 2 reported that she began to understand the nature of therapy around Session 8 and 9, and that therapy was too short for some clients with disordered eating concerns.

, 2013b) Respiratory deficits are measured in these rodent model

, 2013b). Respiratory deficits are measured in these rodent models by plethysmography (Morrey et al., 2012), oxygen saturation (SaO2) (Morrey et al., FG-4592 supplier 2012), diaphragmatic electromyography (EMG) (Morrey et al., 2010), and optogenetic photoactivation

of phrenic motor neurons in the cervical cord (Wang et al., 2013b). Respiratory deficits are further identified by challenging the infected animals with hypercapnia (7% CO2) (Wang et al., 2013b). Representative tracings of whole body plethysmography are shown for mice (Fig. 3). The principle is that as the rodent breathes in the sealed chamber, changes in voltage are recorded from pressure-sensitive transducers. Qualitatively, one can tell the difference in the tracings between sham-infected and WNV-infected mice, particularly if the animals are noticeably moribund (Fig. 3). To quantitatively interpret the patterns, the shapes of the curves are mathematically described by 16 different algorithms with the apparatus used in a WNV study (minute volume, tidal volume, enhanced pause, end expiratory pause, end inspiratory pause, peak expiratory flow, peak inspiratory flow, frequency, inspiratory time, expiratory time, relaxation time, pause, time delay, specific airway resistance, specific airway conductance, mid-expiratory flow) (Morrey et al., 2012). Of the 8 parameters markedly affected by WNV infection, minute volume (MV) as

a measure of lung capacity over time was the most unambiguous indicator of WNV-induced respiratory Selleckchem Paclitaxel selleck compound stress. The suppression of MV during development of neurological disease is also supported by reduced SaO2 as measured by pulse oximetry (Morrey et al., 2012); however, pulse oximetry is less accurate in mice and is not performed on hamsters due to the lack of sufficient tail for the application of a cuff. The use of plethysmography facilitated the discovery that respiratory insufficiency is

the likely physiological mechanism of death for a subset of arboviral encephalitides, including WNV (Wang et al., 2013b). Respiratory insufficiency is the only physiological readout that correlates strongly with WNV-induced mortality (Morrey et al., 2012) (Fig. 4). No other disease parameters in WNV-infected rodents, i.e., cerebral edema, overt seizures, starvation or dehydration, cardiac abnormalities, paralysis, nose bleeding, front limb tremors, memory loss, or autonomic dysfunctions correlate with mortality (Morrey et al., 2004b, Morrey et al., 2008a, Morrey et al., 2008b, Siddharthan et al., 2009, Smeraski et al., 2011 and Wang et al., 2011). Remarkably, respiratory insufficiency as measured by% normal MV caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), neuro-adapted Sindbis virus (NSV), North American tick-borne encephalitis Powassan virus (not shown) also correlates strongly with mortality (Wang et al., 2013b) (Fig. 4).

ene gov on ca/environment/en/resources/collection/data_downloads/, and Environment Canada (access date 10 July 2012, There is a gap in scientific knowledge from about 1900 to 1972 regarding the ecological condition of Lake St. Clair as noted in earlier studies of Leach (1972) and Monheimer (1975). Nutrient concentration data (from 1998 to 2008) were collected near the mouth of St. Clair River (station 740016, 42.6494°N, − 82.5133°W) by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. Ecological data were gathered

from peer-reviewed literature and from state and federal agency reports with some sources providing electronic Small molecule library data (Bell, 1980, Cavaletto et al., 2003, David et al., 2009, Hiltunen, 1971, Leach, 1972, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 1981, Michigan Water Resources Commission, 1973, Monheimer, 1975, Nalepa and

Gauvin, 1988, Nalepa et al., 1996, Reighard, 1894 and Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channel Management Committee, 1988). These data were chosen because the sites were located near the middle of the lake (see S1) and provide estimates of the changes in the native mussel species richness, total phosphorus concentrations, chlorophyll a concentrations, and transparency depth (via Secchi disk depth) which are useful indicators of the water quality condition Thalidomide of the lake over time. Commercial fish harvest data (thousands

of pounds converted to kilograms) were found online from Baldwin et al. (2009) (access date 18 December 2012, and the available grand totals (USA + Canada) were used. Historic typhoid fever statistics were found online through the state’s website on vital statistics (Michigan Department of Community Health, access date 2 April 2012,4612,7-132-2944_4669—,00.html). Historically, key beaches and other water bodies along the western lakeshore were monitored for bacterial indicators (which are found in the intestines of all warm blooded animals) in swimmable waters by Macomb County Health Department to protect human health. These historic beach data were digitized and analyzed based on records from the Macomb County Health Department (1948–1998) and more recent data were downloaded from the Michigan Beach Guard online database ( Beach violation standards have changed overtime from single sample standards of 5000 CFU/100 mL for total coliform (prior to 1981), to geometric mean 400 CFU/100 mL for fecal coliform (1981 to 1996) and then to a daily geometric mean of 300 CFU/100 mL and a monthly geometric mean of 130 CFU/100 mL for Escherichia coli (1996 to current). Because indicators and sampling methods have changed over time, data were normalized to E.

Based upon field observations and sediment core data, the Gorge D

Based upon field observations and sediment core data, the Gorge Dam impoundment has different characteristics downstream and upstream of the former power plant (Fig. 2). Downstream of the former power plant, cores C1 through C6, C12, and C13 contain sediment, having high magnetic concentration, and are readily correlated (Fig. 4). Upstream of the former power plant, cores C11, C10, and C8 contain sediment, having lower magnetic concentration (Fig. 4). To confirm the magnetic susceptibility correlations, 18 distinctive Lumacaftor in vitro lithologic

marker beds or laminations were identified and correlated among most cores. Not all of the key beds/laminations could be extended upstream of the former power plant to sites 11, 10, and 8 because there is a change in sediment type. Downstream of the former power plant the impoundment is wide, deep and slow-flowing (Fig. 2). The water cross sectional area decreases from about

900 m2 closest to the dam to about 320 m2 at cross section 11 as both the pool width and depth decrease (Fig. 5). Cores C1 through C4 recovered between 550 and 580 cm of sediment and terminated at bedrock. Cores C3 and C4 were collected within 5 m of each other and contain identical sediment. Correlative sediment AG-014699 concentration from C3 was spliced into the gap of no sediment recovery between core drives 1 and 2 in core C4 to create a complete composite sediment section (Fig. 6). This composite section is representative of the impoundment fill downstream of the former power plant. The composite section contains, dark brown to black mud having organic-rich layers, between 0 and 225 cm below lake floor (cmblf); an abundance of dark gray CCP and black mud layers between 225 and 460 cmblf; and dark

grayish-brown mud, having abundant light gray to tan clay laminations, between 460 and 545 cmblf (Fig. 6). Directly above bedrock is a 9 cm thick layer of muddy, sandy gravel. Moving upstream toward the former power plant, the uppermost mud unit, having low magnetic concentration, thins and contains more fibrous plant material BCKDHB (Fig. 4). Wet and dry bulk density increase toward the bottom of the cores, and sediment organic content is between 4 and 8%. The largest magnetic susceptibility values correspond to the sediment layers having abundant CCP (Fig. 6). The combustion of coal produces slag, synthetic gypsum, fly-ash, and bottom-ash that are collectively called coal combustion products (CCPs) (Kalyoncu, 2000 and Jones et al., 2012). Although spherule fly-ash particles were identified by ESEM, we did not attempt to distinguish the different CCP particle types, so we use the term CCP in this study. Further study of representative subsamples supplements the lithologic descriptions presented above. The median grain-size (d50) for the impoundment fill is in the silt-size range. Samples at the core top and in the CCP-bearing layers have between 4 and 14% sand (Fig. 6).

Rg3 can induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in different cance

Rg3 can induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in different cancer cells via different pathways such as downregulating hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [18], [19], [20] and [21]. Rk1 was investigated to inhibit telomerase activity and cell growth and induce apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 and -3 via ERK pathway, whereas another article demonstrated that Rk1 could induce G1 arrest and autophagy [22] and [23]. Rg5 blocks the cell cycle at the Gl/S transition phase by increasing p21Cip/WAF1 and decreasing cyclin E and CDK2 [24]. Epirubicin is a third-generation anthracycline that treats a broad

spectrum of cancers, including cervical, breast, lung (especially small cell lung

cancer), ovarian, stomach, FG-4592 datasheet colon, and bladder, and malignant lymphoma [25] and [26]. Similar to widely used this website anticancer drugs, epirubicin exhibits some adverse effects on blood, the stomach, and the heart; these effects largely depend on the applied doses [27]. Paclitaxel is another important anticancer drug that is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for treating ovarian, breast, lung, colorectal, bladder, prostate, and gastric cancer, melanoma, and lymphoma [28], [29] and [30]. Paclitaxel, which is an inhibitor of microtubule degradation, induces cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase [31] and [32] and ultimately apoptosis [33] and [34]. This drug also has significant adverse effects, such as hypersensitivity, neutropenia syndrome, neurotoxicity, heart rhythm

disorders, and intracellular toxicity [35], [36] and [37]. Therefore, developing adjuvant agents to potentiate the anticancer activities of epirubicin and paclitaxel and to minimize their adverse effects is significant. In the current study, SG significantly Astemizole potentiated the anticancer activities of epirubicin and paclitaxel in a synergistic manner. These effects were associated with the increased mitochondrial accumulation of both Bax and Bak that led to an enhanced cytochrome c release, caspase-9/-3 activation, and apoptosis. SG was provided by Dr. Jeong Hill Park, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Epirubicin was acquired from Pfizer (Wuxi, China). Newborn calf serum and Dulbecco modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) were purchased from Gibco (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA). Caspase substrates Ac-DEVD-AFC, Ac-IETD-AFC, and Ac-LEHD-AFC were purchased from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA, USA). The Mitochondria Isolation Kit was purchased from Pierce (Rockford, IL, USA). Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit was purchased from KeyGEN Biotech (Nanjing, China).