were evaluated with a cut-off titer of 1:256, as recommended by the manufacturer. Titers between ≥1:16 and ≤1:128 were considered borderline positive. All US evaluations were performed by radiologists. PAIR was conducted under US guidance when there were no contraindications (eg, communication with the bile ducts). The procedure was performed at the Department selleck of Ultrasound, Rigshospitalet, without sedation of the patient and without assistance from anesthesiology staff in the examination room (although assistance was readily available should it be required). Informed consent was obtained from the patient. Intravenous access to a peripheral vein was established and adrenalin 1 mg/mL for intravenous administration was available in case of an anaphylactic reaction. The area of skin chosen for puncture was tagged and disinfected with a 70% ethanol solution. After injection of local anesthetic (10 mL of lidocaine
10 mg/mL), the cyst was punctured with a five to six French see more pig-tail catheter under US guidance. As much cyst material as possible was aspirated, inspected for bilirubin, and collected for subsequent microscopy for the presence of free “hooks” from scolices or scolices themselves. Hypertonic saline (20%) in an amount equalling half the amount of aspirated cystic fluid was injected into the cyst cavity, where it remained for 25 to 30 minutes before being re-aspirated. The catheter was removed and the liver reexamined by US for acute bleeding. The patient rested in bed for 4 h following the procedure. The cyst material was collected for histological and chemical
analysis at the Department of Pathology, Rigshospitalet. The criterion for cure after PAIR was permanent solidification of the cyst(s) (stage CE4/CE5). Before 2002, CE was primarily treated with surgery in our center. From 2002 and onwards, PAIR was chosen as a primary treatment Gefitinib order whenever possible. Surgical treatment was chosen if the cyst communicated with the biliary system or was inaccessible to PAIR due to lack of a viable access for anatomical reasons. Surgical procedures were decompression of the cyst with instillation of 10% saline; removal of cyst contents followed by marsupialization and omentoplasty; or radical liver resection.4 For surgery, criteria for cure were disappearance or solidification of the original cyst cavity. Descriptive statistics were calculated using Microsoft Excel 2000 (Redmond, WA, USA). Fisher’s exact test was applied to compare proportions. Most (22/26) patients had only one cyst, three had two cysts, and one had three cysts. Ten patients were male and 16 were female. Median age at the first presentation of the disease was 36 years (interquartile range 29–45 y). Exposure to risk factors included living in close contact with sheep and dogs.