We would like to thank Trevor Darby for provision of control C2 non-polarized RNA samples. The authors and their work are supported by SFI grant numbers: 02/CE/B124 and 07/CE/B1368. The authors have ABT-737 clinical trial no conflicting financial interests. Figure S1. Evaluation of PRR expression in non polarised C2, polarised C2 and polarised C2-M epithelia-I, CD302 (a), CD302 (b), NLRP3 (c) NLRP11 (D), NOD1(e), NLRC5 (f), CLEC4A (g) and MYD88 (h) expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Figure S2. Evaluation of PRR expression in non polarised C2, polarised C2 and polarised C2-M epithelia-II, RIPK2 (a), TLR1 (b), TLR2 (c) TLR3 (d), TLR5 (e), TLR6 (f), TLR7 (g) and TLR8 (h) expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Figure S3. Commensal
bacteria induce CCL20 and CLDN4 gene expression in polarised C2 cells. Figure S4. Co-localisation and translocation of commensal bacteria in murine Peyer’s patch M cells. Figure S5. Pathway analysis of gene expression profiles of C2-M cells incubated with commensal bacteria. Figure S6. The effect of commensal bacteria on gene expression of microarray identified gene candidates in polarised C2 cells. Table S1. List of PCR primers and probes used in this study. Table S2. List of PCR primers used in the PRR gene expression screen selleck kinase inhibitor used in this study. Table S3. List of genes present in each data set corresponding to Fig. 2. “
“Surrogate markers for monitoring immuno-virological
discordant responders, in addition to plasma viral load and CD4 cells, are still lacking. We assessed the diagnostic utility of CD38 expression on CD8 T cell assay, alone or in association with lymphocyte proliferation to mycotic antigens, in evaluating antiretroviral response. 28 vertically HIV-infected youths, 21 HAART- and seven 2 nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors-treated, were enrolled in a retrospective study. Responders (57.1%) and non-responders (42.9%) to stable antiretroviral
therapy for a minimum of 6 months, on the basis of viral load and CD4 T cells, comprehensively evaluated by CD38 expression on CD8 T lymphocytes [measured as CD38 antibody bound per CD8 T cell (CD38 ABC) and %CD38+ of total CD8 Selleckchem Lonafarnib T cells (%CD38/CD8)] and lymphocyte proliferation to P. jiroveci, C. albicans, C. neoformans, A. fumigatus at a single time point after treatment, were selected. CD38 expression ≥2401 CD38 ABC and ≥85% CD38/CD8 cut-off points, accurately discriminates responders versus non-responders, both measures resulting in 75.0% (CI 42.8–94.5) sensitivity (identification of non-responder) and 93.8% (CI 69.8–99.8) specificity (identification of responder), when considered as single assays. The association ‘≥2401 CD38 ABC or ≥85% CD38/CD8’ improved sensitivity to 83.3% (CI 51.6–97.9), while the association ‘<2401 CD38ABC (or <85% CD38/CD8) and lymphoproliferative response positive to ≥2 tested organisms’ improved specificity to 100% (CI 79.4–100).