J Leuk Biol 2011;90:551–62 74 Sun J, Zhang Y, Yang M, Xie Q, L

J Leuk Biol. 2011;90:551–62. 74. Sun J, Zhang Y, Yang M, Xie Q, Li Z, Dong Z, et al. Hypoxia induces T-cell apoptosis by inhibiting chemokine C receptor 7 expression: the role

of adenosine receptor A(2). Cell Mol Immunol. 2010;7:77–82.PubMed 75. Larbi A, Cabreiro F, Zelba H, Marthandan S, Combet E, Friguet B, et al. Reduced oxygen tension results in reduced human T cell proliferation and increased intracellular oxidative damage and susceptibility to apoptosis upon activation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:26–34.PubMed 76. Conforti L, Petrovic M, Mohammad selleck products D, Lee S, Ma Q, Barone S, et al. Hypoxia regulates expression and activity of Kv1.3 channels in T lymphocytes: a possible role in T cell proliferation. J Immunol. 2003;170:695–702.PubMed 77. Lukashev D, Sitkovsky M. Preferential expression of the novel alternative isoform I.3 of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α in activated human T lymphocytes. Hum Immunol. 2008;69:421–5.PubMedCentralPubMed 78. Georgiev P, Belikoff

BB, Hatfield S, Ohta A, Sitkovsky MV, Lukashev D. Genetic deletion of the HIF-1α isoform I.1 in T cells enhances anti-bacterial immunity and improves GANT61 purchase survival in a murine peritonitis model. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:655–66.PubMedCentralPubMed 79. Lukashev D, Klebanov B, Kojima H, Grinberg A, Ohta A, Berenfeld L, et al. Cutting edge: hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and its activation-inducible short isoform I.1 negatively regulate functions of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2006;177:4962–5.PubMed 80. Fontenot JD, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY. Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:330–6.PubMed 81. Ivanov II, McKenzie BS, Zhou L, Tadokoro CE, Lepelley A, Lafaille

JJ, et al. The orphan nuclear receptor RORγt directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells. Cell. 2006;126:1121–33.PubMed 82. Clambey ET, McNamee EN, Westrich JA, Glover LE, Campbell EL, Jedlicka P-type ATPase P, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-dependent induction of FoxP3 drives regulatory T-cell abundance and function during inflammatory hypoxia of the mucosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012;109:E2784–93.PubMedCentralPubMed 83. Ben-Shoshan J, Maysel-Auslender S, Mor A, Keren G, George J. Hypoxia controls CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T-cell homeostasis via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2412–8.PubMed 84. Higashiyama M, Hokari R, Hozumi H, Kurihara C, Ueda T, Watanabe C, et al. HIF-1 in T cells ameliorated dextran sodium sulfate-induced murine colitis. J Leuk Biol. 2012;91:901–9. 85. Ikejiri A, Nagai S, Goda N, Kurebayashi Y, Osada-Oka M, Takubo K, et al. Dynamic regulation of Th17 differentiation by oxygen concentrations. Int Immunol. 2012;24:137–46.PubMed 86. Dang EV, Barbi J, Yang H-Y, Jinasena D, Yu H, Zheng Y, et al. Control of TH17/Treg balance by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Cell. 2011;146:772–84.PubMedCentralPubMed 87.

Type × methanotrophs use primarily the ribulose monophosphate pat

Type × methanotrophs use primarily the ribulose monophosphate pathway, but possess the enzymes needed for the serine pathway as well [20]. Stable isotope probing and sequencing of 16S rDNA and pmoA, as well as lipid biomarker analysis, have EPZ015666 in vivo detected type-I aerobic methanotrophs in sediments and biofilms at the COP Shane and Brian seeps [21, 22]. Recently, measurements of average δ13C of carbonates and lipid biomarkers associated with ANME and SRB also indicated occurrence of AOM at the Brian seep [23]. Another survey at the Brian seep detected ANME-2 at 6-9 cm bsf (below sea floor) by FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridization) [24]. In

the present study, we have used metagenomics to characterize the taxonomic and metabolic potential for both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation in two sediment samples from different depths at the Tonya seep (COP). By avoiding PCR amplification and primer target specificity, the metagenomics approach offered further insight into the taxonomy and metabolic potential of the prokaryotic communities of the methane seep sediments. Results Gas measurements and methane oxidation rate The average methane oxidation rate based

on 11 measurements in the top 15 cm of the seep sediments was 156 ± 64 nmol cm-3 day-1. Still, the gas emitted from the Tonya seep sediments into the water phase contained a large fraction of methane. Even after travelling 25 find more m through the water column, where dissolved O2 and N2 entered the bubbles, the two gas samples contained 80.4% (gas sample I) and 68.1% (gas sample II) methane. When O2 and N2 were excluded, and the hydrocarbon and CO2 content were normalized, methane accounted for 93.6% in both gas samples.

The remainder consisted of CO2 and short chain hydrocarbons (C2, C3, i-C4 and n-C4). Metagenome creation through filtering of reads 454 sequencing resulted in 395540 reads for the 0-4 cm sample and 282964 reads for the 10-15 cm sample. Replicate filtering of the metagenomes removed 33.03% of the reads from the 0-4 cm sample and 31.31% of the reads in the 10-15 cm sample. The resulting metagenomes consisted of 264902 reads (average length 413 ± 138 bases, range 29-1907 bases) for the 0-4 cm sample and 194360 reads (average length of 419 ± 134 bases, range 29-1458 bases) for the Vildagliptin 10-15 cm sample. All further analyses were performed on these metagenomes (Figure 1). Unless other ways specified, all percentages throughout the text are given as percent of total reads for each filtered metagenome. Figure 1 Flowchart showing the workflow for taxonomic binning, marker gene annotation and pathway mapping. Abbreviations used in the figure: ncbiP-nr (NCBIs non-redundant Protein Database), mcrA (methyl-coenzyme M reductase), pmoA (particulate methane monooxygenase), dsrAB (dissimilatory sulphite reductase), KAAS (KEGG Automatic Annotation Server) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes). Estimated effective genome sizes (EGS) were 4.8 Mbp and 4.

Formation of sporocarps strongly depends on environmental conditi

Formation of sporocarps strongly depends on environmental conditions, such as temperature, rainfall and humidity (Alexopoulos

et al. 1996; Zak 2005). From the limited data on the possible relation between precipitation and the presence of species and the number of sporocarps formed it appears that an optimal amount of rainfall exists for the formation of sporocarps by the various species in the Colombian Amazon forests. Probably, the optimal amount of precipitation differs also between this website terra firme and flood forests, but more data are required to address this issue. Next to differences in plant composition and landscapes, the plots also differed in a number of abiotic factors, such as pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity (CEC), nutrient and mineral contents, and flooding frequencies (Vester and Cleef 1998; C. Lopez-Q. unpubl. data). Habitat differentiation, together with different perturbation stages, such as flooding and forest succession, may result in different microclimates. The observed differences in shared species between flood and non-flood forests and the high production of sporocarps in the flooded plots AM-MFIS (804 sporocarps) and AM-FPF (741 sporocarps) at the Amacayacu

site may be related to the regular deposition of detritus, nutrients and Copanlisib ic50 organic matter during the floods that occur on average twice a year. Alluvial soils in várzea are rich in nutrient content (Singer 1988) and those in Amacayacu also have a higher pH of 4.5–4.9 if compared to terra firme forests that have a pH

range of 4.1–4.4 (Rudas and Prieto 1998). The main determinant causing the differences in fungal biodiversity between flood and non-flood forests remains to be identified. The extent of fungal diversity Thiamine-diphosphate kinase on a global scale is a heavily debated issue (Hawksworth 1991, 2001; Mueller et al. 2007; Schmit and Mueller 2007; Hyde 2001; Hyde et al. 2007; Crous et al. 2006). Extrapolations based on the total number of plant species and the assumption of a specific relationship between plant and fungal biodiversity have been used to get to estimates of 1.5 million or more existing species of fungi. In our case, the tree/fungal species ratio was 0.3 for Amacayacu and 0.7 for Aracuara, which is much higher than the results obtained by Schmit and Mueller (2007) who estimated the ratio between vascular plants and macrofungal species in Central and South America as 0.08. The difference between our results and those of Schmit and Mueller may be due to the fact that we included only trees with a dbh ≥2.5 cm, while they obtained the ratio using macrofungal species and all vascular plants from Central and South America. However, both ratios may underestimate the real figure of fungal biodiversity as many taxa are excluded, such as all or most microfungi, including yeasts, zygomycetes and filamentous Ascomycota.

Rhabdomyolysis during therapy with daptomycin Clin Infect Dis 2

Rhabdomyolysis during therapy with daptomycin. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:e108–10.PubMedCrossRef 71. Marcos LA, Camins BC, Ritchie DJ, Casabar E, Warren DK. Acute renal insufficiency during telavancin therapy in clinical practice. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:723–6.PubMedCrossRef 72. Heron M. Deaths: leading causes for 2008. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2012;60:1–94.PubMed 73. DeFrances CJ, Lucas CA, Buie VC, Golosinskiy A. 2006 National Hospital Discharge Survey. Natl Health Stat Report.

2008;30:1–20. 74. Jones RN, Sader HS, Moet GJ, Farrell DJ. Declining antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States: VS-4718 purchase report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1998–2009). Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;68:334–6.PubMedCrossRef 75. Micromedex® Healthcare Series [intranet database]. Version 2.0. Greenwood Village CTRHI.

76. Vidaillac C, Leonard SN, Sader HS, Jones RN, Rybak MJ. In vitro activity of ceftaroline alone and in combination against clinical isolates of resistant Gram-negative pathogens, including beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2360–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 77. Wiskirchen DE, Crandon JL, Furtado GH, Williams G, Nicolau DP. In vivo efficacy of a human-simulated regimen of ceftaroline combined with NXL104 against extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:3220–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 78. Louie A, Castanheira M, Liu W, et al. Pharmacodynamics of beta-lactamase inhibition by check details NXL104 in combination with ceftaroline: examining organisms with multiple types of beta-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Loperamide 2012;56:258–70.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 79. Livermore DM, Mushtaq S, Barker K, Hope R, Warner M, Woodford N. Characterization of beta-lactamase and porin mutants of Enterobacteriaceae selected with ceftaroline + avibactam (NXL104). J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:1354–8.PubMedCrossRef 80. Castanheira M, Sader HS, Farrell DJ, Mendes RE, Jones RN. Activity of ceftaroline-avibactam

tested against Gram-negative organism populations, including strains expressing one or more beta-lactamases and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying various staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4779–85.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 81. Shlaes DM. New beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations in clinical development. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013;1277:105–14.PubMedCrossRef 82. Barbour A, Schmidt S, Rand KH, Derendorf H. Ceftobiprole: a novel cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;34:1–7.PubMedCrossRef 83. van Hal SJ, Paterson DL. New Gram-positive antibiotics: better than vancomycin? Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011;24:515–20.PubMedCrossRef 84. Riccobene TA, Su SF, Rank D.

Hence, photo-CIDNP MAS NMR allows the study of the photochemical

Hence, photo-CIDNP MAS NMR allows the study of the photochemical machinery of photosynthetic RCs at atomic

resolution in the dark ground state (chemical shifts) as well as in the radical pair state (intensities). Summary The symbiosis of magnetic resonance and photosynthesis is a long-standing one, providing insight and challenge for developments in several areas of research. The attraction is long lasting, and the contributions in the remainder of this special issue show that it is a fascinating, multifaceted area of research. The fascination does not end, and maybe, for some it is only beginning. Acknowledgments It is impossible to do justice to the contributions of the scientists BAY 11-7082 in photosynthesis who contributed to and whose works are cited in this special issue. Personally, I selleck chemical would like to thank my teachers in the field, George Feher, Friedhelm Lendzian, Wolfgang Lubitz, and Klaus Möbius. Maryam Hashemi Shabestari is acknowledged for preparing the figures. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References Alia A, Ganapathy S, de Groot HJM (2009) Magic Angle Spinning

(MAS) NMR to study the spatial and electronic structure of photosynthetic light harvesting complex 2. Photosynth Res (this issue) Allen JP, Cordova JM, Jolley CC, Murray TA,

Schneider JW, Woodbury NW, Williams N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase JC, Niklas J, Klihm G, Reus M, Lubitz W (2009) EPR, ENDOR, and Special TRIPLE measurements of P•+ in wild type and modified reaction centers from Rb. sphaeroides. Photosynth Res 99:1–10CrossRefPubMed Atherton NM (1993) Principles of electron spin resonance. Ellis Horwood and PTR Prentice Hall, Chichester Carbonera D (2009) Optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of photoexcited triplet states. Photosynth Res (this issue) Carrington A, McLachlan AD (1979) Introduction to magnetic resonance. Chapman and Hall, London Duer MJ (2002) Introduction to solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Oxford Feher G (1998) Three decades of research in bacterial photosynthesis and the road leading to it: a personal account. Photosynth Res 55:3–40 Finiguerra MG, Blok H, Ubbink M, Huber M (2006) High-field (275 GHz) spin-label EPR for high-resolution polarity determination in proteins. J Magn Reson 180:197–202CrossRefPubMed Flores M, Isaacson R, Abresch E, Calvo R, Lubitz W, Feher G (2007) Protein-cofactor interactions in bacterial reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26: II. Geometry of the hydrogen bonds to the primary quinone Q(A)(-) by H-1 and H-2 ENDOR spectroscopy. Biophys J 92:671–682CrossRefPubMed Hore PJ (1995) Nuclear magnetic resonance.

Lower surface pressures would greatly reduce the boiling points o

Lower surface pressures would greatly reduce the boiling points of fumarolic fluids and produce larger bubbles extending the vapor phase range of lunar protolife compounds enhancing reactivity. Reactivity would also be increased by convection, reflux and fluidization in fumarolic

vents. One of the more interesting stimuli for Precambrian lunar protolife is fumarolic spatter and wet/dry cycles, combined with lower lunar gravity and surface pressure (Green, 1965). Spatter of particles 0.1 m or less from fumaroles on earth at Kuirau Park in Rotorua in New Zealand on January 26, 2001 were thrown 100 m. On the moon, this would produce a spatter blanket of some one million square meters. Spatter would have relatively high concentrations of nucleotides, catalysts, enzymes and divalent cations By flash evaporation hot lunar spatter landing on montmorillonite could possibly produce pyrimidines

including FK228 mw cytosine on dryout (Nelson, et al. 2001) as well as ammonium cyanide. Drying and heating in fumaroles could possibly promote polymerization reactions of oligonucleotides and peptides. Wet/dry cycles of clay-rich vents have been shown to produce peptides of 12 to 20 amino acids chains (Penny, Cell Cycle inhibitor 2003). Also modifying the arguments of Lathe (2004) for the origin of life in rapid terrestrial ocean tidal cycles, a version of a polymerase chain reaction favoring double strand RNA or DNA replication and amplification might relate to lunar fumaroles during wet and dry cycles. During the drying phase of fumarolic spatter cycles, characterized by high soluble cation concentrations, the opposing PO4 groups that separate each sugar nucleotide monomer in double stranded RNA or DNA would be more effectively neutralized by divalent fumarolic

ions (Mg+2, Ca+2, Ba+2) (versus Lathe’s monovalent ion terrestrial model); interstrand hydrogen bonding would promote association of the two polymer strands favoring RNA/DNA replication. Copying by the RNA/DNA polynucleotide can only take place during the drying phase along with non-enzymatic polymerization through dehydration condensation. Finally, potential fumarolic sites on the moon (Green, 2007) would be covered by unknown thicknesses of impact and volcanic ejecta. Fumarolic protolife, if present, would else probably occur in disseminated ices, in ice lenses or in clathrates. Blank, J. (2005). Earth’s primitive environment and exogenous sources of ingredients for prebiotic chemical evolution. (Abstract), Orig. Life Evol. Biosphere, 36: 204 Fishkit, M. (2007). Steps toward the formation of a protocell; the possible role of short peptides. Orig. Life Evol. Biosphere, 37: 537–553 Green, J. (1965). Tidal and gravity effects intensifying lunar defluidization and volcanism. Annals N.Y. Acad. Scis., 123: 403–469 Green, J. (2007). Implications of a caldera origin of the lunar crater, Copernicus. EOS Trans. AGU, 88, Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract P41A-0227 and poster. Lathe, R. (2004).

2%, 0 02%, 0 002%, and 0 0002%) to an OD600 of about 0 5, harvest

2%, 0.02%, 0.002%, and 0.0002%) to an OD600 of about 0.5, harvested the cells, and analyzed the protein profile of the lysate using SDS-PAGE. We examined the gels for a unique band that exists in the lysate from induced but not uninduced cultures. We obtained optimum induction using LB broth containing 0.002% arabinose (data not shown). LMG194/pAB4 was grown in RM minimal medium supplemented with glucose overnight and subcultured into fresh RM minimal medium. At an OD600 of 0.5, 0.002% arabinose was added to induce expression of PA2783 and incubation continued for 5 h. Initial examination of total proteins

from the whole cell lysate confirmed the overproduction of the protein. As shown in Figure 6B, P505-15 compared with proteins from the uninduced culture, a unique band that corresponds to the predicted 70.5-kDa recombinant PA2783 protein (rPA2783) was detected in the induced culture. We extracted the band and determined the amino acid sequence of an internal peptide. The sequence matched (100%) that of the predicted protein (data Quisinostat not shown). Using the cold osmotic shock procedure [36, 42], we fractionated the cells into supernatant, periplasmic, cytoplasmic, and outer membrane fractions and separated the proteins by SDS-PAGE. Recombinant PA2783 was localized to the membrane fraction (data not shown). As overproduction of foreign

proteins in E. coli often results in their seclusion in inclusion bodies, which localize with the membrane fraction, we attempted to solubilize rPA2783. Despite trying numerous protocols, we failed to obtain a soluble protein with proteolytic activity. As an alternative, Depsipeptide in vivo we purified the outer membrane fraction of LMG/pAB4 and examined it for enzymatic activity [41, 42]. We detected the 70.5-kDa

rPA2783 within the outer membrane preparation of the arabinose-induced cells only (Figure 6C). This was confirmed by amino acid sequence analysis of an internal peptide obtained from the eluted protein (data not shown). Similarly, we detected the endopeptidase activity within the outer membrane of the arabinose-induced cultures only (Figure 6D). These results suggest that P. aeruginosa PA2783 encodes a membrane-bound 65-kDa protein with endopeptidase activity. We propose the name Mep72 for this protein that belongs to the metalloendopeptidase family M72.001, and mep72 for the gene encoding it. Vfr regulates mep72 expression by specifically binding to its upstream region Vfr is a DNA binding protein that regulates the expression of several genes including lasR, toxR, pvdS, and ptxR by binding to the promoter region of these genes [15, 16, 18, 43]. Thus, Vfr may regulate mep72 expression directly by binding to the upstream region of the PA2782-mep72 operon. Analysis of the upstream region revealed the presence of a potential Vfr-binding sequence located from −58 to −38 bp 5′ of the PA2782 GTG codon and between the −10 and −35 sequences (Figure 7A) [18].

illeg , Art 52 1] ≡ Agaricus clavipes Pers , Syn meth fung (G

illeg., Art. 52.1] ≡ Agaricus clavipes Pers., Syn. meth. fung. (Göttingen)

2: 353 (1801)]. Basidiomes clitocyboid, gymnocarpous (veils absent), medium-sized, not lichenized; pileus at first convex with an inrolled margin, becoming indented or infundibuliform with age, often with AZD5582 a low umbo in center; surface not hygrophanous (but context hygrophanous), smooth or with appressed fibers in center, brown, tan, grayish or olivaceous brown. Lamellae decurrent, close or subclose, white or cream. Stipe sub-bulbous, cylindrical or tapered to base, context spongy, often becoming hollow, surface silky-fibrillose or fibrillose and often minutely hairy. Basidiospores broadly fusiform, ellipsoid or subglobose, hyaline, strongly guttulate, not PI3K Inhibitor Library manufacturer cyanophilous, inamyloid, appearing smooth with light microscopy, minutely roughened-rugose when viewed with SEM; basidia 4-sterigmate; cystidia absent; lamellar trama hyphae cylindric, mostly thin-walled, some walls up to 0.5 μm thick, bidirectional (Fig. 26); subhymenium interwoven; pileipellis a cutis of subparallel hyphae, pigments intracellular; medallion clamp connections present. Type species produces aldehyde dehydrogenase and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Gregarious or caespitose, growing saprotrophically in forest litter, often under conifers. Differs from Clitocybe s.s. (typified by C. nebularis)

in having acyanophilous spores; differs from Cuphophyllus in having basidia less than 5 times the length of the basidiospores and subparallel rather than interwoven pileipellis BCKDHB hyphae; differs from Infundibulicybe (Tricholomataceae) in having

basidiospores that are uniguttulate and ellipsoid, broadly fusoid or subglobose rather than lacrymoid with few small guttules, and walls roughened rather than smooth under SEM; differs from Lichenomphalia in being saprotrophic rather than biotrophic with bryophytes and having roughened rather than smooth spores under SEM (Figs. 27, 28 and 29). Fig. 26 Ampulloclitocybe clavipes lamellar cross section (DJL06TN40, Tennessee, Great Smoky Mt. Nat. Park, USA). Scale bar = 20 μm Fig. 27 Color photographs of examples of subfamily Hygrocyboideae. a–k. Tribe Hygrocybeae. a–j. Hygrocybe. a–f. Subg. Hygrocybe. a–b. Sect. Hygrocybe. a. Subsect. Hygrocybe, H. conica (Jens H. Petersen/Mycokey, Denmark). b. Subsect. Macrosporae, H. acutoconica (D. Jean Lodge, Tennessee, USA). c. Sect. Velosae, H. aff. hypohaemacta (Claudio Angelini, Dominican Republic; inset showing pseudoveil by D.J. Lodge, Puerto Rico). d. Sect. Pseudofirmae, H. appalachianensis (Steve Trudell, Great Smoky Mt. National Park, USA). e. Sect. Microsporae, H. citrinovirens (Geoffrey Kibbey, Wales, UK). f. Sect. Chlorophanae, H. chlorophana (Jan Vesterholt, Denmark). g–j. Hygrocybe subg. Pseudohygrocybe. g–i. Sect. Coccineae. g. Subsect. Coccineae, H. coccinea (Jens H. Petersen/Mycokey, Denmark). h. Subsect. Siccae, H. reidii (David Boertmann, Denmark). i. Subsect. Squamulosae, H. turunda (Jens H.

85-1436), which may be due to the lack of oxygen in the tube furn

85-1436), which may be due to the lack of oxygen in the tube furnace for prolonged annealing process [24]. The average grain diameters can be estimated by the Scherrer formula. They are 9.1, 15.7, 18.0, and 20.9 nm for the as-synthesized, 2-h annealed, 4-h annealed, and 6-h annealed samples, respectively. It indicates that the grain size grows up with increasing T

A . However, for 8-h annealed sample, the concentration of Fe is too low so that the grain size can hardly be estimated. Figure 1 X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-synthesized and annealed samples. Figure 2 shows the TEM bright field images of the samples before and after annealing. EPZ015938 cell line In Figure 2a,b, it shows that the as-synthesized sample is one-dimensional sphere-chain-like nanowire. The average diameter of the nanowire is approximately 70 nm, while the length is over 1 μm.

Besides, the TEM image in Figure 2b reveals the contrast between the gray edge and the dark center, suggesting the core-shell structure of the nanowires. The diameter of the core is more than 50 nm, while the thickness of the shell is less than 10 nm. Considering the facts that the metallic Fe is unstable in air and according to the XRD patterns shown in Figure 1, it can be inferred that the shell should be a thin layer of α-Fe2O3. Figure 2c,d shows the images of the nanowires after 4-h annealing. The annealed nanowires are also in core-shell structure with the diameter of core between 50 and 100 nm, which is not very uniform. Compared with the as-synthesized buy Lazertinib nanowires, the thickness of the shell is substantially increased after annealing. Moreover, it is interesting to find Benzatropine that after the 4-h annealing process, some novel fluffy-like phases germinate and grow on the surface of the oxidation layer as shown in Figure 2d. The morphology of the fluffy-like phases obtained here is similar to the urchin-like

α-Fe2O3 reported in the literature [24], which were prepared via the oxidation of Fe spheres in air at the temperatures between 250°C and 400°C. It should be noticed that since the nanowires are oxidized in air and they are only composed of Fe and α-Fe2O3 phases as XRD patterns shown, we can infer that the fluffy-like phase here is the α-Fe2O3. Figure 2 TEM bright field images of [email protected] 2 O 3 core-shell nanowires. Panels (a) and (b) indicate the as-synthesized sample. Panels (c) and (d) indicate the 4-h annealed sample. Figure 3 shows the hysteresis loops (MH) of the as-synthesized samples measured at 5 and 300 K. The 5 K saturation magnetization (M s ) is approximately 116 emu/g, which is lower than that of the bulk Fe (218 emu/g) [25]. The decrease of M s may be due to the existence of the AFM α-Fe2O3 at the surface of the nanowire as shown in the TEM image in Figure 2. It may also be caused by the defects and disorders in the nanostructure [26].

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