\n\nFinally, the “interior” mechanism is also another subclass
of the Taube (inner-sphere) classification, and it lies at the other extreme of very fast electron-transfer rate processes (heretofore unrecognized), arising rom the spontaneous annihilation of the donor/acceptor dyad to the delocalized (electron-transfer) complex as it descends barrierlessly into the chemical “black hole” that is rate-limited solely by diffusion.”
“The plastoquinones sargaquinoic acid and sargachromenol are major components of brown alga Sargassum sagamianum and are known to be involved in neurite growth and survival. In this study, we describe their novel pro-apoptotic activities in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, treatment with sargaquinoic acid or sargachromenol promoted cell death and activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-4 and poly (ADP-ribose) find more polymerase (PARP) in a concentration-dependent manner. Sargaquinoic acid- or sargachromenol-induced
apoptosis was enhanced by co-treatment with UVB irradiation. It showed much higher levels of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, selleck chemicals and PART than with sargaquinoic acid and sargachromenol alone, while it had no effect on Bcl-2 and Bax expression level. Examination by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemistry showed that topical application of sargaquinoic acid (1 mg/ml) before UVB irradiation (2.5 kJ/m(2)) of hairless mice also enhanced apoptosis including activation of caspase-3. Since a combination of phototherapy using UVB with topical reagents has been clinically applied to treat hyperproliferative skin disease, these results suggest that sargaquinoic acid and sargachromenol could be effective therapeutic agents. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All
“We surveyed 497 isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from 2008 to 2009 as part of the ARTEMIS global surveillance study for elevated MIC values to itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Sequencing of the cyp51A gene revealed that 8/29 isolates with elevated MIC values to one or more triazoles, all originating in China, contained the TR/L98H mutation BIX 01294 cost associated with resistant European isolates of A. fumigatus. This is the first time the TR/L98H mutation has been identified outside Europe.”
“Erythrocytes serve as reservoirs for cis-and trans-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Incubation of rat red blood cells (RBCs) with cis-and trans-EETs produces threo-and erythro-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, respectively. The V max of EET hydrolysis by rat intact RBCs (2.35 +/- 0.24 pmol/min/10(8) RBCs for 14,15-trans-EET) decreased by approximately 2 to 3-fold sequentially from 14,15-, 11,12-to 8,9-EETs for both cis-and trans-isomers. The V max of trans-EET hydrolysis by RBCs is approximately 2 to 3 times that of the corresponding cis-EETs.