Thus, the goal should be to achieve a first remission that is the

Thus, the goal should be to achieve a first remission that is the longest possible by using the most effective treatment upfront. At relapse, the challenge is to

select the optimal treatment for each patient while balancing efficacy and toxicity. The decision will depend on both disease- and patient-related factors. This review aimed to assess the available research data addressing ‘retreatment’ approaches, drug ‘sequencing’ and the long-term impact of upfront therapy with novel drugs. Leukemia (2012) 26, 73-85; doi: 10.1038/leu.2011.310; published online 25 October 2011″
“Synthetic biology re-imagines existing biological systems by designing and constructing new biological parts, devices, and systems. In the arena of cytoskeleton-based transport, synthetic approaches are currently PRT062607 cell line used in two broad ways. First, molecular motors are harnessed for non-physiological functions BIBW2992 chemical structure in cells. Second, transport systems are engineered in vitro to determine the biophysical rules that govern motility. These rules are then applied to synthetic nanotechnological systems. We review recent advances in both of these areas and conclude by discussing future directions in engineering the cytoskeleton and its motors for transport.”
“Identification of differentially proteomic responses to external pHs would pave an access for understanding of

survival mechanisms of bacteria living at extreme pH environment. We cultured Alkalimonas amylolytica N10 (N10), a novel alkaliphilic bacterium found in Lake Chahannor, in media with three different pHs and extracted the correspondent membrane and cytoplasm proteins for proteomic analysis through 2-DE. The differential 2-DE spots corresponding to the altered pHs were delivered to MALDI TOF/TOF MS for protein identification. Since the genomic data of strain N10 was unavailable, we encountered a problem at low rate of protein identification with 18.1%. We employed, therefore, a combined strategy of de novo sequencing to analyze MS/MS signals generated from MALDI TOF/TOF MS. A significantly improved rate of protein

identification was thus achieved at over than 70.0%. Furthermore, we extensively investigated the expression of these pH-dependent N10 genes using Western blot and real-time PCR. The conclusions drawn from immunoblot and mRNA measurements were mostly in agreement with the proteomic Bcl-w observations. We conducted the bioinformatic analysis to all the pH-dependent N10 proteins and found that some membrane proteins participated in iron transport were differentially expressed as external pH elevated and most of differential proteins with increased or bell-shape mode of pH-dependence were involved in bioenergetic process and metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acid, amino acids, and nucleotides. Our data thus provide a functional profile of the pH-responsive proteins in alkaliphiles, leading to elucidation of alkaliphilic-adaptive mechanism.

Therefore, there can be no simple relationship between affinity a

Therefore, there can be no simple relationship between affinity and specificity as defined by relative binding of the receptor to cognate and non-cognate ligands.”
“T-cell large granular

lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a complex diagnosis, requiring persistent clonal expansions of LGLs, and cytopenias. Often the diagnosis is unclear as non-clonal expansions of LGLs commonly occur in reactive conditions. To better understand T-LGL leukemia, we performed a comprehensive clinicopathologic analysis of 85 patients with LGL expansions. Interestingly, distinct CD8 + (dim)/CD57 + populations, seen by flow cytometry, were significantly associated with clonal T-LGL leukemia (P<0.001) as well as neutropenia (median absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 1.45 vs 3.19 x 10(9)/l; P=0.0017). Furthermore, cases with distinct CD8+(dim)/ CD57 + populations and monoclonal T cells had even lower ANCs (median ANC 1.41 x 10(9)/l; P=0.001) compared with cases without these this website dual criteria. Additionally,

complete or partial loss of CD5 expression was independently associated with clonal T-LGL leukemia (P<0.001) and neutropenia (median ANC 1.41 vs 2.70 x 10(9)/l; P=0.002). This study describes specific immunophenotypic parameters to better define clonal cases of T-LGL leukemia associated with significant neutropenia. Leukemia (2011) 25, 1439-1443; doi: 10.1038/leu.2011.107; published online 27 May 2011″
“Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a benign disease with a sudden-onset, transient memory disturbance. Characteristic punctate high-signal intensity lesions in the hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been reported in variable frequencies. We investigated the influence of the timing of DWI and the magnetic field strength

on the lesion detectability in TGA.

Seventy-three patients diagnosed with TGA underwent DWI within 24 h after the symptom onset and again on day 3 at either 1.5 (n = 31) or 3 T (n = 42). The patients were divided into three subgroups according to the time lapse after the symptom onset to the first DWI (0-6 h, 6-12 LY2835219 concentration h, and 12-24 h).

The detection rate of the lesions during the first 24 h rose statistically significantly with increased time lapse after the symptom onset (34% in 0-6 h, 62% in 6-12 h, and 67% in 12-24 h). It increased up to 75% on day 3. The detection rate was higher at 3 T than at 1.5 T in all time points (41% vs. 27% in 0-6 h, 70% vs. 44% in 6-12 h, 80% vs. 57% in 12-24 h, and 86% vs. 61% on day 3), but the statistical significance was achieved only on day 3.

Awareness of the different lesion detectability on DWI according to the time lapse after the symptom onset can help in diagnosing the patients with suspected TGA. High field strength is another important factor to increase the lesion detectability on DWI.”
“Interest in the possibility of an immune-mediated pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders has increased.

Overall, this article highlights the benefits and promise of MEA

Overall, this article highlights the benefits and promise of MEA technology as a high throughput, rapid screening method for toxicity testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“A laboratory study of older adults with osteoarthritis and their spouses was conducted to examine the unique influence of

exposure to suffering on caregivers’ risk for impaired psychological and physical health. Spouses’ blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored during 2 tasks designed to capture their partners’ suffering. First, spouses watched their partners (and a stranger) carry heavy logs across an 8-ft space for 3 min, a task that elicited buy Forskolin pain expression. Second, spouses spoke about their partners’ suffering (and also about a typical meal with their partners). Results showed that spouses’ BP and HR increased when watching and talking about their partners’ suffering, and exposure to a partner’s suffering was more physiologically stressful than to Mdivi1 mouse a stranger’s suffering. These findings suggest that heightened physiological stress caused by exposure to a loved one’s suffering may be one pathway to caregivers’ increased risk for cardiovascular disease.”
“Objective: To investigate the nature of parkinsonism associated with liver cirrhosis, which entails examination of the integrity of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

Methods: Consecutive patients who had concurrent liver cirrhosis and parkinsonism

Selleck Prexasertib were investigated with MRI and dopamine transporter (DAT) single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using iodine I 123 [(123)I]-radiolabeled fluoropropyl (FP) 2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-iodophenyl) tropane (CIT).

Results: Five patients with liver cirrhosis were identified and confirmed to have concurrent parkinsonism. In all patients, MRI showed increased T1 signals, affecting basal ganglia bilaterally. DAT density was normal in four patients, and these patients had relatively non-progressive, levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonism. In one patient, striatal [(123)I]FP-CIT

uptake was reduced, similar to the pattern of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). This patient showed sustained response to levodopa treatment.

Conclusions: Our patients showed two different patterns of clinical and neuroradiological features, that is, atypical parkinsonism with normal DAT density, which is clearly differentiated from PD versus levodopa-responsive parkinsonism with reduced DAT density (classical PD). Further investigations using other markers of dopaminergic transmission and histopathological studies should be conducted to elucidate whether damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system occurs in parkinsonism associated with liver cirrhosis. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This paper compares the meanings and applications of concepts relevant to both the life course and the stress process frameworks.

Groups 1 and 2 consisted of 51 and 13 patients, respectively Age

Groups 1 and 2 consisted of 51 and 13 patients, respectively. Age, time to sling excision, and Urogenital Distress Inventory, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire and quality of life scores were not significantly different between the groups. Preoperative urodynamic parameters in 37 group 1 and 7 group 2 patients revealed a mean detrusor pressure at maximum flow of 31.1 and 22.2 cm H(2)O, respectively (p = 0.25). Mean preoperative maximum flow was 13.4 and 15.4 ml per second (p = 0.59), and median post-void residual urine was 45.5 and 8.3, ml respectively (p = 0.16).

Conclusions: Despite similar baseline symptoms and uroflow

characteristics patients with urethral distortion had 50% higher detrusor pressure and greater post-void residual urine than those without urethral distortion. Flow rate alone may be insufficient to predict find more the impact of the mid urethral sling on bladder function in patients with new onset lower urinary tract symptoms.”
“It is well established that physical exercise can enhance hippocampal-dependent forms of learning and memory in laboratory animals, commensurate with increases in hippocampal neural plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] mRNA/protein, neurogenesis, long-term potentiation [LTP]). However, very little is known about the effects of exercise

on other, non-spatial forms of learning and memory. In addition, there has been little investigation of the duration of the effects of exercise on behavior

or plasticity. Likewise, few studies have compared the effects of exercising during adulthood versus adolescence. This is particularly H 89 concentration important since exercise may capitalize on the peak of neural plasticity observed during adolescence, resulting in a different pattern of behavioral and neurobiological effects. The present study addressed these gaps in the literature by comparing the effects of 4 weeks of voluntary exercise (wheel running) during adulthood or adolescence on novel object recognition and BDNF levels in the perirhinal cortex (PER) and hippocampus (HP). RAD001 supplier Exercising during adulthood improved object recognition memory when rats were tested immediately after 4 weeks of exercise, an effect that was accompanied by increased BDNF levels in PER and HP. When rats were tested again 2 weeks after exercise ended, the effects of exercise on recognition memory and BDNF levels were no longer present. Exercising during adolescence had a very different pattern of effects. First, both exercising and non-exercising rats could discriminate between novel and familiar objects immediately after the exercise regimen ended; furthermore there was no group difference in BDNF levels. Two or four weeks later, however, rats that had previously exercised as adolescents could still discriminate between novel and familiar objects, while non-exercising rats could not.

“A state of low dopaminergic activity has been implicated

“A state of low dopaminergic activity has been implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The clinical symptoms of ADHD include inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, as well as impaired learning; dopaminergic modulation of the functions in the hippocampus is important to both learning and memory. To determine dopamine receptor (DR) density in a well-established animal model for ADHD, we quantified the LB-100 in vitro dopamine D5 receptors in the hippocampus in the spontaneously

hypertensive rat. We used immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy to quantify the dopamine D5 receptor density on CA1 pyramidal cell somas and dendrites and dendritic spines in the stratum radiatum and stratum oriens. The density of the dopamine D5 receptors was significantly lower in the cytoplasm of pyramidal cell somas in the spontaneously hypertensive rat compared to the control, indicating a reduced reservoir for insertion of receptors into the plasma membrane. DRs CUDC-907 are important for

long-term potentiation and long-term depression, hence the deficit may contribute to the learning difficulties in individuals with the diagnosis of ADHD. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The opportunistic pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromized and in part immunocompetent patients. A. fumigatus can grow in multicellular communities by the formation of a hyphal network encased in an extracellular matrix. Here, we describe the proteome and transcriptome of planktonic- and biofilm-grown A. fumigatus mycelium after 24 and 48h. A biofilm- and time-dependent regulation of many proteins and genes of the primary metabolism indicates a developmental stage of the young biofilm at 24 h, which demands energy. At a matured biofilm phase, metabolic activity seems

to be reduced. However, genes, which code for hydrophobins, and proteins involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly upregulated. In particular, proteins of the gliotoxin secondary metabolite gene cluster were induced in biofilm BV-6 order cultures. This was confirmed by real-time PCR and by detection of this immunologically active mycotoxin in culture supernatants using HPLC analysis. The enhanced production of gliotoxin by in vitro formed biofilms reported here may also play a significant role under in vivo conditions. It may confer A. fumigatus protection from the host immune system and also enable its survival and persistence in chronic lung infections such as aspergilloma.”
“Purpose: To our knowledge long-term oncologic outcomes following partial cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma remain to be defined. We evaluated patterns of recurrence and survival among matched patients treated with partial vs radical cystectomy for bladder cancer.

VSI has been conducting endovascular workshops for the vascular t

VSI has been conducting endovascular workshops for the vascular trainees and has arranged for fellowships abroad in reputed vascular units. VSI is looking forward to having active interaction with World Federation of Vascular Societies to create more training opportunities for the young vascular surgeons. (J Vasc Surg 2008;4.8:76S-80S.)”
“Treatment of TRAIL-resistant tumor cells

with the nitric oxide donor DETANONOate sensitizes the tumor cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis concomitantly with DR5 upregulation. The mechanism of sensitization was examined based on the hypothesis that DETANONOate inhibits a transcription FK506 repressor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) that negatively regulates DR5 transcription. Treatment of the prostate carcinoma cell lines with DETANONOate inhibited both NF-kappa B and YY1 DNA-binding Torin 2 solubility dmso activities concomitantly with upregulation of DR5

expression. The direct role of YY1 in the regulation of TRAIL resistance was demonstrated in cells treated with YY1 siRNA resulting in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The role of YY1 in the transcriptional regulation of DR5 was examined in cells treated with a DR5 luciferase reporter system (pDR5) and two constructs, namely, the pDR5/-605 construct with a deletion of the putative YY1 DNA-binding region (-1224 to -605) and a construct pDR5-YY1 with a mutation of the YY1 DNA-binding site. A significant (3-fold) augmentation of luciferase activity over baseline transfection with

pDR5 was observed in cells transfected with the modified constructs. ChIP analysis corroborated the YY1 binding to the DRS promoter. In vivo, tissues from nude mice bearing the PC-3 xenograft and treated with DETANONOate showed inhibition of YY1 and upregulation of DRS. The present findings demonstrate that YY1 negatively regulates DR5 transcription and expression and these correlated with resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. DETANONOate inhibits both NF-kappa B and YY1 and in combination with TRAIL reverses tumor cell resistance to Adenosine triphosphate TRAIL apoptosis. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Cardiovascular diseases have become more prevalent and threatening to the health of the population of Asia due to the rapidly growing number of aging people. The Asian Society for Vascular Surgery unites 13 member organizations: Japan, Korea, China, India, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Taiwan, Bangladesh, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The essential mission of the Asian Society for Vascular Surgery is to improve training in vascular surgery to increase the number of competent vascular surgeons in Asia. Almost every member country has its own vascular training program.

Taken together, the results presented demonstrate the usefulness

Taken together, the results presented demonstrate the usefulness of label-free quantitative proteomics and statistical tools to discriminate between noise and true interactions, even for proteins normally considered as background contaminants.”
“Noradrenaline (NA) in the hippocampus plays an important role in memory function and has been shown to modulate different AZD3965 ic50 forms of synaptic plasticity. Oscillations in the gamma frequency (20-80 Hz) band in the hippocampus have also been proposed to play an important role in memory functions and, evidence from both in vitro

and in vivo studies, has suggested this activity can be modulated by NA. However, the role of different NA receptor subtypes in the modulation of gamma frequency activity has not been fully elucidated. We have found that NA (30 AM) exerts a

bidirectional control on the magnitude of kainate-evoked (50-200 Tubastatin A supplier nM) gamma frequency oscillations in the cornu Ammonis (CA3) region of the rat hippocampus in vitro via activation of different receptor subtypes. Activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors (alpha-AR) reduced the power of the gamma frequency oscillation. In contrast, activation of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR) caused an increase in the power of the gamma frequency oscillations. Using specific agonists and antagonists of AR receptor subtypes we demonstrated that these effects are mediated specifically via alpha 1(A)-AR and beta 1-AR subtypes.

NA activated both receptor subtypes, but the alpha 1(A)-AR-mediated effect predominated, resulting in a reversible suppression of gamma frequency activity. These results suggest that NA is able to differentially HAS1 modulate on-going gamma frequency oscillatory activity that could result in either increased or decreased information flow through the hippocampus. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ormeloxifen is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and has been shown to possess anticancer activities in breast and uterine cancer. Here, we show that ormeloxifen induces apoptosis in dose-dependent manner in a variety of leukemia cells, more strikingly in K562. 2-DE-gel electrophoresis of K562 cells induced with ormeloxifen showed that 57 and 30% of proteins belong to apoptosis and cell-cycle pathways, respectively. Our data demonstrate that ormeloxifen-induced apoptosis in K562 cells involves activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and subsequent cytochrome c release, leading to mitochondria-mediated caspase-3 activation. Ormeloxifen-induced apoptosis via ERK activation was drastically inhibited by prior treatment of K562 cells with ERK inhibitor PD98059.

Cells displaying the parietal epithelial cell markers PAX2 (paire

Cells displaying the parietal epithelial cell markers PAX2 (paired box gene 2) and the cytokeratins were also positive for the proliferating cell marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These cells gathered at sites of

buy QNZ adhesion, and in response to active lesions in the tuft, grew inward along the adhesion onto the tuft, forming a monolayer positive for parietal markers and the podocyte marker Wilms tumor protein-1 (WT-1). These cells deposited a layer of collagen over the sclerosing tuft. Thus, all biopsies of patients with IgAN had changes basically identical to those classically described in FSGS. Hence, our study strongly suggests that podocytopathy of a type similar to that in primary FSGS occurs frequently in

IgAN. Kidney International (2011) 79, 635-642; doi: 10.1038/ki.2010.466; published online 15 December 2010″
“The pathogenesis of tardive dyskinesia (TD) may involve neurodegeneration and associated dysfunction of brain-derived AZD1480 chemical structure neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for the survival and maintenance of function in neurons. We therefore compared serum BDNF levels in schizophrenic patients with (n = 129) and without TD (n = 235), and normal controls (n = 323). Assessments included the abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS) and the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Our results were that patients with TD had lower serum BDNF levels than those without TD and normals. Lower serum BDNF levels were correlated with greater PANSS negative subscores, but not correlated with the AIMS scores. Serum BDNF levels did not differ between patients on typical and atypical antipsychotics and were not correlated with antipsychotic doses or years of exposure. We concluded that decreased BDNF levels might be associated with TD pathophysiology and more negative symptoms of schizophrenia. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“It is well known that lesions morphologically identical with focal

segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) may appear in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Capsular adhesions without underlying clonidine abnormalities in the tuft, often the first sign of FSGS, are frequent in IgAN. In this retrospective study, a new cohort of 128 adult patients with IgAN was used to validate the new Oxford classification system of IgAN, and shown to have highly significant associations with clinical and outcome parameters. We then used these patients to determine the extent to which IgAN could be accounted for in terms of FSGS. Some form of lesion consistent with FSGS, notably hyalinosis and collapsing glomerulopathy, was found in 101 of these patients. No glomerular lesions were found in 16 patients, and 11 had mild lesions not definable as FSGS. Those with FSGS had significantly worse renal survival at 80 months than those without.

Forty percent of AG patients were also receiving antiplatelet the

Forty percent of AG patients were also receiving antiplatelet therapy. Periprocedural bleeding and closure rate at 1 year were evaluated.

Results: No major

bleeding occurred in either group. Minor bleeding was noted Liproxstatin-1 datasheet in 8 of 88 procedures in the AG vs 4 of 92 in the CG (P = 0.24); all in patients receiving radiofrequency ablation. Four of the eight minor bleeds in the AG were noted in patients receiving “”triple therapy”" with warfarin, aspirin, and dopidogrel or ticlopidine. Triple therapy in the AG was associated with a higher risk of minor bleeding compared with the CG (relative risk, 13.0; 95% confidence interval, 4.10-41.19, P < .001). All treated venous segments remained closed at the 1-year follow-up in both groups.

Conclusions: In this relatively small, nonrandomized study comparing endovenous thermal ablation in patients with and without warfarin, no differences were found in periprocedural risk of major bleeding or closure

rate of the treated venous segments. Minor bleeding was increased in patients receiving triple therapy with AP24534 datasheet warfarin, aspirin, and a thienopyridine who underwent radiofrequency ablation. (J Vasc Surg 2011;53:147-9.)”
“Mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are known to have the ability to differentiate into various cell lineages including neurons in vitro. We have reported that chick dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-conditioned medium (CM) promoted the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into motor neurons. We investigated the formation of undifferentiated iPS cell colonies and the differentiation of iPS cells into neurons using DRG-CM. When iPS cells were cultured in DMEM containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), the iPS cells appeared to be maintained in an undifferentiated state for 19 passages. The number of iPS cell colonies (200 pm in diameter) was maximal at six days of cultivation and the colonies were maintained in an undifferentiated state, Liothyronine Sodium but the

iPS cell colonies at ten days of cultivation had hollows inside the colonies and were differentiated. By contrast, the number of ES cell colonies (200 mu m in diameter) was maximal at ten days of cultivation. The iPS cells were able to proliferate and differentiate easily into various cell lineages, compared to ES cells. When iPS cell colonies were cultured in a manner similar to ES cells with DMEM/F-12K medium supplemented with DRG-CM, the iPS cells mainly differentiated into motor and sensory neurons. These results suggested that the differentiation properties of iPS cells differ from those of ES cells.”
“Objectives: The purpose of this study was to document the results of bleomycin A5 sclerotherapy for cervicofacial lymphatic malformations (LMs), and the clinical data of 65 patients between October 2004 and October 2007 were reviewed.

Conclusion: Despite the high affinity and target selectivity of A

Conclusion: Despite the high affinity and target selectivity of AZ11637326 for alpha 7 nAChR in vitro and encouraging rodent studies, receptor-mediated binding could not be demonstrated in non-human primates. Further structural optimization of compounds of this class will be required for them to serve as suitable radiotracers for PET. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“LC combined with MS/MS analysis of Selleck Buparlisib complex mixtures of protein digests is a reliable and sensitive method

for characterization of protein phosphorylation. Peptide retention times (RTs) measured during an LC-MS/MS run depend on both the peptide sequence and the location of modified amino acids. These RTs can be predicted using the LC of biomacro-molecules at critical conditions model (BioLCCC). Comparing the observed RTs to those obtained from the BioLCCC model can provide additional validation of MS/MS-based peptide identifications to reduce the false discovery rate and to improve the reliability of phosphoproteome profiling. In this study, energies of interaction between phosphorylated residues and the surface of RP separation media for both “”classic”" alkyl C18 and polar-embedded C18 stationary phases were experimentally determined and included in the BioLCCC model extended for phosphopeptide analysis. The RTs for phosphorylated peptides and their nonphosphorylated

analogs were predicted using the extended BioLCCC model and compared with their experimental RTs. The extended

model was evaluated using literary data and a complex phosphoproteome Selleck Blasticidin S Telomerase data set distributed through the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Proteome Informatics Research Group 2010 study. The reported results demonstrate the capability of the extended BioLCCC model to predict RTs which may lead to improved sensitivity and reliability of LC-MS/MS-based phosphoproteome profiling.”
“Introduction: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) has a significant role in regulating endocannabinoid signaling in the central nervous system. As such, FAAH inhibitors are being actively sought for pain, addiction, and other indications. This has led to the recent pursuit of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers targeting FAAH. We report herein the preparation and preclinical evaluation of [C-11-carbonyl]PF-04457845, an isotopologue of the potent irreversible FAAH inhibitor.

Methods: PF-04457845 was radiolabeled at the carbonyl position via automated [C-11]CO2-fixation. Ex vivo brain biodistribution of [C-11-carbonyl]PF-04457845 was carried out in conscious rats. Specificity was determined by pre-administration of PF-04457845 or URB597 prior to [C-11-carbonyl]PF-04457845. In a separate experiment, rats injected with the title radiotracer had whole brains excised, homogenized and extracted to examine irreversible binding to brain parenchyma.