We used the ALMANAC crop model to evaluate four biomass removal r

We used the ALMANAC crop model to evaluate four biomass removal rates, 0%, 50%, 75% and 100%, and four tillage cropping systems, continuous No Till (NT), and Conventional Till (CT), and periodically plowed or subsoiled NT lands at Shorter, AL, for a Lynchburg loamy sand soil, over 51 yr of actual weather data: 1960-2010. Farmers periodically plowed or subsoil NT lands to alleviate problems of drainage, pests, and soil compaction. Given the importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) as a soil quality indicator, we premised

sustainability upon the maintenance of SOC at or above the initial SOC levels. As expected, NT had the highest SOC and lowest bulk density (BD) across the four biomass removal rates and gained the highest percent SOC over the 51-yr simulation period. For this study, the 75% biomass removal rate was applied sustainably on NT energy Cell Cycle inhibitor sorghum production systems, giving an annual harvestable biomass yield of 18.0 +/- 0.9, residue biomass, 6.2 +/- 0.3, and a root biomass PHA-739358 Cell Cycle inhibitor of 7.2 +/- 0.4 Mg ha(-1). However, the 75% removal rate also significantly increased soil bulk density, a critical indicator of soil compaction, by 30%. Compared to conventional tillage, subsoil tillage maintained SOC and better alleviated soil compaction in NT systems, but at the reduced biomass removal threshold of 50%. Long-term biomass removal resulted

in reduced total biomass yields over time due to nutrient depletion as reflected by increased N stress days on subsequent crops. We attributed the N stress to N immobilization by the decomposing residues, reduced

mineralization and N losses. Additional inputs will https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AC-220.html be needed to avoid increased N uptake from the soil which could result in soil mining. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of nephrostomy tract infiltration with bupivacaine in tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

Patients and Methods: All adult patients undergoing unilateral tubeless PCNL from July 1, 2007 to October 31, 2007 were included in the study. Patients were randomized to receive infiltration of bupivacaine in the nephrostomy tract at the end of the procedure or not to receive bupivacaine. To show a 10% difference in postoperative pain, a sample size of 30 persons per group would be needed. Postoperatively, the pain score were obtained at 4 and 24 hours by a nurse who was blinded to the protocol. The perioperative outcome of these patients (study group) was compared with those undergoing tubeless PCNL without nephrostomy tract infiltration of bupivacaine (control group).

Results: Patient demographics and intraoperative parameters in both groups were comparable. Supracostal access was needed in 65.7% and 72.7% patients in the study and control group, respectively.

(Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 857-

(Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 857-864)”
“This work presents a theoretical and experimental study on the Inhibitor Library specific migration process, describing the mass transfer of a model migrant Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (I-1076), an antioxidant commonly used in the polyolefins processing. Film samples (LDPE), with

initial concentration of Irganox between 1000 and 6000 (mg/kg), and thickness of 50-190 mu m, were placed in contact with fatty (EtOH 95%) and aqueous (EtOH 10%) food simulants at 40 degrees C for 20 days, in order to obtain the concentration evolution in the food simulant which was measured by HPLC. On the other hand, a phenomenological model based on a resistances-in-series approach was developed considering

the diffusion through the polymer film, natural convection in the food simulant and the thermodynamic equilibrium between the polymer and the liquid simulant phase. For the thickest films, the diffusion coefficient of I-1076 see more through the polymer phase was estimated varying between 1.95.10(-13) (m(2) s(-1)) and 2.0-10(-13) (m(2) s(-1)) at 40 degrees C. On the contrary, the thinnest one shows a significant decrease of the diffusion coefficient value, which was evaluated in 1.0.10(-14) (m(2) s(-1)). This modification can be explained by means of a crystal distribution and size in the thinnest polymer film prepared by CAST extrusion. The mathematical model developed is a tool for prediction and analysis which can be used to facilitate the characterization of polymers, and it could predict the response as packaging for food in a specific application. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) and polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) were prepared directly during the plasticization step of an injection molding process in an attempt to attain both (i) the reinforcement of the blends through fibrillar morphology, and (ii) an adequate compatibilization despite the

short processing procedure used. Differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic-mechanical analysis indicated that the blends were made up of a PC-rich phase Selleck Citarinostat where some PA6,6 was present and, ruling out a possible degradation, of an almost pure PA6,6-phase. The cryogenically fractured surfaces observed by scanning electron microscopy showed both rather fine particles and larger particles with occluded subparticles. This complex morphology indicates low interphase tension and, therefore, compatibilization, which can be attributed to the presence of PA6,6 in the two phases of the blends. The values of Young’s modulus, determined by means of tensile tests, were always synergistic and, in the case of the 25/75 blend, the modulus was even higher than those of any of the two pure components. It appears this could be due to both the highly fibrillar morphology of the dispersed phase, and the significant decrease observed in specific volume.

Based on the multiple measures of model fit, configural, metric,

Based on the multiple measures of model fit, configural, metric, and scalar invariance were found for almost all items across the age and gender groups, as was invariance in the factor covariances. The PedsQL (TM) Multidimensional Fatigue Scale demonstrated strict factorial invariance for child and adolescent self-report across gender and strong factorial invariance across age subpopulations.

The findings support an equivalent three-factor structure across the age and gender groups studied. Based on these data, it can be concluded that pediatric patients across the

groups interpreted the items in a similar manner regardless of their PKC412 ic50 age or gender, supporting the multidimensional factor structure interpretation of the PedsQL (TM) Multidimensional Fatigue Scale.”
“From February 2006 to March 2008, 42 pregnant women homozygous for the 677CT-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)

allele were recruited in our obstetrics service for pregnancy at risk. All had antithrombotic prophylaxis with low-dose aspirin and/or low-molecular-weight heparin, supplemented with folic acid. In all, 2 women lost the fetus and 4 were lost to follow-up before delivery. A total of 36 women delivered term infants who all underwent transfontanellar ultrasonography within 24 hours of birth. Six FDA-approved Drug Library (16.6%) had ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral lesions. No differences were observed in gestational age, birth weight, or umbilical cord pH between the 30 healthy infants and the 6 with cerebral lesions. Neonatal outcomes were negative in spite of maternal folic acid supplementation and antithrombotic prophylaxis during selleck chemicals llc pregnancy. This suggests a relationship between maternal homozygous mutation in the 677CT-MTHFR allele and neonatal cerebral lesions.”
“Precision continuous-wave NMR measurements have been carried out over the entire magnetization curve

of EuO and are presented in tabular form. Two very closely spaced resonances are observed and are attributed to domain and domain-wall signals. Both of the signals are useful for analysis in the spin-wave region. Only the domain signal is measurable above similar to 50 K. The latter is used for fitting T(c) and the critical exponent beta. The critical-region fits agree with previous measurements within experimental error. The low-temperature data exhibit a clear-cut T(2) behavior, at variance with the expectations of conventional spin-wave theory. This result is discussed in relation to two semiempirical spin-wave schemes, one formulated by Bykovetz, and one by Koebler. The NMR signal at 4.2 K gives no indication of a quadrupole splitting in contradiction to the interpretation of several previous spin-echo NMR spectra observed in EuO. This issue remains unresolved. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

All rights reserved “
“PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in centr

All rights reserved.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in central macular thickness using optical coherence tomography after uneventful cataract surgery combined with intracameral epinephrine use.

SETTING: Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

METHODS: This prospective case series comprised eyes of consecutive

patients who had uneventful phacoemulsification and in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) implantation between August 2005 and January 2006. The eyes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. In 1 group, 0.2 mL epinephrine (1:5000 solution) was injected just after the clear corneal incision was created. The Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library cell assay other group (control) did not receive epinephrine. Optical coherence tomography was performed in all eyes preoperatively as well as postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months.

RESULTS: The epinephrine group comprised 73 eyes (73 patients) and the control group, 76 eyes

(86 patients). In both groups, the increase in retinal thickness from preoperatively to 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively was statistically significant (P<.05); the difference was not statistically significant at 1 day or 1 week in either group (P>.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in find more mean retinal thickness throughout the follow-up (P>.05). Clinically significant macular edema occurred in 3 eyes in the epinephrine group and 3 eyes in the control group.

CONCLUSION: Although epinephrine is a well-known risk factor for central macular edema, intracameral injection of 0.2 mL epinephrine (1:5000)

did not increase the risk for central click here macular edema in eyes with no risk factors that had uneventful phacoemulsification with IOL implantation.”
“Ab initio calculations of the biaxial anisotropy of infinite Pd zigzag chains are presented. The simulations were performed with the Vienna Ab-Initio Simulation Package, using a tetragonal unit cell with a supercell approach where the atoms are repeated along the z-direction. The anisotropy is determined from the energies along the three principal directions [001], [100], and [010]. The second-order anisotropy constants K-1 and K’(1) were extracted by fitting the calculated energy values to the phenomenological energy. The easiest magnetization direction is along the wire axis, whereas the hardest direction is perpendicular to the plane of the wire. The calculated anisotropy constants K-1 and K’(1) are 5.5 MJ/m(3) and 13.9 MJ/m(3), respectively These anisotropies are large, but they are smaller than those of linear chains, because the zigzag shape leads to a quenched orbital moment. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3559505]“
“The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii induces a feeding site, called syncytium, in roots of host plants. In Arabidopsis, one of the genes whose expression is strongly induced in these structures is Pdf2.1 which codes for an antimicrobial plant defensin.

94, 95% CIs [- 10 55, - 1 34] mm Hg, P = 0 01; DBP: – 3 35, 95% C

94, 95% CIs [- 10.55, - 1.34] mm Hg, P = 0.01; DBP: – 3.35, 95% CIs [-6.52, - 0.19] mm Hg, P = 0.04). In contrast, treatment with soy isoflavones did not lead to a significant reduction in blood pressure in normotensive subjects (6 trials; SBP: 0.29, 95% CIs [- 2.39, 2.97] mm Hg, P = 0.83; DBP: – 0.43, 95% CIs [- 1.66, 0.81] mm Hg, P = 0.50).

Conclusion: Soy isoflavones had an effect of lowering blood pressure in hypertensive subjects, but Selleck PLX3397 not in normotensive subjects. Larger trials need to be carried out to confirm the present findings. (C) 2010 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Numerous evolutionary innovations were required to enable freshwater

green algae to colonize terrestrial habitats and thereby initiate the evolution of land plants (embryophytes). These adaptations probably included changes in cell-wall composition and architecture that were to become essential for embryophyte development and radiation. However, it is not known to what extent the polymers that are characteristic of embryophyte cell walls, including pectins, hemicelluloses, glycoproteins and lignin, evolved in response to the demands of the

terrestrial environment or whether selleck kinase inhibitor they pre-existed in their algal ancestors. Here we show that members of the advanced charophycean green algae (CGA), including the Charales, Coleochaetales and Zygnematales, but not basal CGA (Klebsormidiales and Chlorokybales), have cell walls that are comparable in several respects to the primary walls of embryophytes. Moreover, we Selleck BIRB 796 provide both chemical and immunocytochemical evidence that selected Coleochaete species have cell walls that contain small amounts of lignin or lignin-like polymers derived from radical coupling of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. Thus, the ability to synthesize many of the components that characterize

extant embryophyte walls evolved during divergence within CGA. Our study provides new insight into the evolutionary window during which the structurally complex walls of embryophytes originated, and the significance of the advanced CGA during these events.”
“Sinus lifting and reconstruction of localized alveolar defects are often required after closure of a large oroantral fistula (OAF) to allow for subsequent implant installation. This study describes a combined surgical technique that involves sinus lifting, bony closure, and reconstruction of the alveolar defect at the site of an OAF. The sinus membrane was reconstructed as a continuous layer by combining the residual sinus membrane with a rotated part of oral mucosa around the OAF. Autogenous bone from the chin and/or ramus was grafted into the prepared sinus space and alveolar defect, and the graft was covered by a buccal advancement flap. This technique was used to treat 8 patients who had large OAFs in the posterior maxillary region.

A retrospective study was made of a cohort of coinfected patients

A retrospective study was made of a cohort of coinfected patients discharged from hospital between January 1998 and December 2002 who had been followed-up for one year within one of these programs. Two-hundred-and-forty-three selleck kinase inhibitor patients who met the inclusion criteria were grouped according to their treatment program (group 1 received home-based care; group 2 attended outpatient departments) and then paired one-to-one across the groups by gender, age and level of education. Only 48 patients from each group could be paired. Apart from the duration of HIV infection, there were no statistically significant

differences (P < 0.05) between patients in the two groups with respect to social-demographic status and clinical or laboratory characteristics. In group 1, 75.0% of patients attained successful tuberculosis treatment compared with 72.9% of those in group 2 (P = 0.816). Treatment was abandoned by 22.9% of patients in group 1 and by 54.2% of those in group 2 (P = 0.008). The death rate within one year after discharge was 20.8% for group 1 compared with 6.3% for group 2 (P = 0.334). Although both programs achieved Ipatasertib price a similar success rate in the treatment

of tuberculosis, patients receiving outpatient care were three to eight-times more likely to abandon the program. The importance of assigning patients at-risk of abandoning treatment to a home-based care program after discharge from hospital

is emphasized.”
“Infectious and parasitic diseases affecting women during their reproductive age may result in vertical transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence for TORSCH among pregnant women receiving care at a university hospital. Records of 574 pregnant women who received medical attention from January 2006 to December 2007 were assessed. The mean age was 27.2 +/- 6.5 years ranging from 13 to 44. The results of the immunodiagnostic tests were: 62.0% (345/556) for IgG and 3.4% (19/556) for IgM anti-T. gondii; 93.1% (433/465) for IgG and 0.6% (3/465) for IgM anti-rubella; 0.9% (5/561) for VDRL; 1.8% (10/554) for HBsAg; 0.7% (4/545) for anti-HCV and 2.1% (11/531) for HIV. In conclusion, the results of immunodiagnostic tests for the TORSCH panel among pregnant women this website attending a perinatal service of a university hospital are in agreement with those reported by previous studies and by governmental sources.”
“Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical synthesized from L-arginine by different isoforms NO-synthases. NO possesses multiple and complex biological functions. NO is an important mediator of homeostasis, and changes in its generation or actions can contribute or not to pathological states. The knowledge of effects of NO has been not only important to our understanding of immune response, but also to new tools for research and treatment of various diseases.

The following markers were analyzed: blood pressure (BP), body ma

The following markers were analyzed: blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI),

waist circumference (WC), glucose, total cholesterol (total-c), triglycerides https://www.selleckchem.com/products/H-89-dihydrochloride.html (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL), HDL-c and subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 activity, hsCRP, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), adiponectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and intercellular adhesion molecular 1 (ICAM1). Results. Relative to the women, men present significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, total-c, TGs, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, uric acid, and TNF-alpha and reduced adiponectin and total and large HDL-c. The protective profile of women is lost after menopause with a significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, LDL-c, OxLDL, hsCRP, and VEGF and decreased total and large HDL-c. Significant correlations were found in women population and in postmenopausal women between Ox-LDL

P005091 in vivo and total, large, and small HDL-c and between TNF-alpha and total, large, and small HDLc, LDL-c, and Ox-LDL. Conclusions. Men present higher CVR than women who lost protection after menopause, evidenced by nontraditional markers, including Ox-LDL and HDL subpopulations.”
“A novel cross-linked copolymer containing hydrophobic perfluoropolyether and hydrophilic oligo(ethylene glycol) units was synthesized and characterized. The anti-biofouling properties of the fluoropolymer were evaluated by laboratory assays using the Oligomycin A supplier fouling diatom Nitzschia and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results from the preliminary study showed that this fluorinated copolymer has promising anti-biofouling performance. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 2071-2078, 2009″
“Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction has dramatically reduced mortality. Coronary angioplasty and thrombolysis are the most effective reperfusion techniques. The controversy about

which of the two methods is best has been superseded by a search for the most rapid and effective way of inducing reperfusion, given the overriding importance of time for saving myocardial tissue. Consequently, pharmaco-invasive strategies, prehospital thrombolysis and rapid patient transport systems have all been implemented. Typically, a certain percentage of patients do not undergo reperfusion for a range of reasons, one of the most important being treatment delay. Trends in Latin America are similar to those in other parts of the world: there is an increasing use of angioplasty instead of thrombolysis and a significant number of patients do not undergo reperfusion. Some patient registries indicate that hospital mortality tends to be higher than in Europe or the United States. There are numerous reasons for the difference, among which are a delay in presentation and a lack of access to properly equipped hospitals because of social inequality.

Here we describe the successful co-development of vemurafenib, a

Here we describe the successful co-development of vemurafenib, a first-in-class selective inhibitor of oncogenic BRAF kinase, and its companion diagnostic, the cobas (R) 4800 BRAF V600 Mutation Test. Key success factors

in the development Mocetinostat price process included early identification of the BRAF V600E biomarker, early development of the diagnostic test, and early and close collaboration between the pharmaceutical and diagnostic development teams. This focused and integrated process resulted in the first personalized medicine for the treatment of metastatic melanoma less than five years after the Investigational New Drug Application, a remarkably short time.”
“Protein phosphorylation on serine, threonine, and tyrosine is well established as a crucial regulatory posttranslational modification in eukaryotes. With the recent whole-genome sequencing projects reporting the presence of serine/threonine kinases and two-component proteins both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the importance of protein phosphorylation in archaea and bacteria is gaining acceptance. While conventional biochemical methods failed to obtain a snapshot of the bacterial phosphoproteomes, advances

XL184 datasheet in MS methods have paved the way for in-depth mapping of phosphorylation sites. Here, we present phosphoproteomes of two ecologically diverse non-enteric Gram-negative bacteria captured by a nanoLC-MS-based approach combined with a novel phosphoenrichment method. While the phosphoproteome data from the two species are not very similar, the results reflect high similarity to the previously published dataset in terms of the pathways the ABT-737 purchase phosphoproteins belong to. This study additionally provides evidence to prior observations that protein phosphorylation is common in bacteria. Notably, phosphoproteins identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa belong to motility, transport, and pathogenicity pathways that are critical for survival and virulence. We report, for the first time, that motility

regulator A, probably acting via the novel secondary messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate, significantly affects protein phosphorylation in Pseudomonas putida.”
“The consensus view in mirror neuron research is that mirror neurons comprise a uniform, stable execution observation matching system. In this opinion article, we argue that, in light of recent evidence, this is at best an incomplete and oversimplified view of mirror neurons, where activity is actually variable and more plastic than previously theorized. We propose an epigenetic account for understanding developmental changes in sensorimotor systems, including variations in mirror neuron activity.

Here, we discuss cyclin F function and recently identified substr

Here, we discuss cyclin F function and recently identified substrates of SCFcyclin (F) involved in deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate

(dNTP) production, centrosome duplication, and spindle formation. We highlight the relevance of cyclin F in controlling genome stability through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and the implications for cancer development.”
“Generation and isolation of recombinant herpesviruses Daporinad by traditional homologous recombination methods can be a tedious, time-consuming process. Therefore, a novel stoplight recombination selection method was developed that facilitated rapid identification and purification of recombinant viruses expressing fusions of immunological epitopes with EGFP. This “”traffic-light”" approach provided a visual indication of the presence and purity of recombinant HSV-1 isolates by producing three identifying signals: (1) red fluorescence indicates non-recombinant viruses that should be avoided; (2) yellow fluorescence indicates cells co-infected with non-recombinant and recombinant viruses that are chosen with caution; (3) green fluorescence indicates pure

recombinant isolates and to proceed with preparation of viral stocks. Adaptability of this system was demonstrated by creating three recombinant viruses that expressed model immunological epitopes. Diagnostic PCR established that the fluorescent stoplight indicators were effective at differentiating between the presence of background virus contamination and pure recombinant viruses specifying immunological epitopes. This enabled isolation of pure recombinant viral stocks that Proteases inhibitor exhibited wildtype-like viral replication and this website cell-to-cell spread following three rounds

of plaque purification. Expression of specific immunological epitopes was confirmed by western analysis, and the utility of these viruses for examining host immune responses to HSV-1 was determined by a functional T cell assay. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Research interests regarding the psychopharmacology of salvinorin A have been motivated by the recreational use and widespread media focus on the hallucinogenic plant, Salvia divinorum. Additionally, kappa opioid (KOP) receptor ligands may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of some neuropsychiatric conditions, including drug dependence and mood disorders. Salvinorin A is a selective KOP agonist, but only a few studies have explored the discriminative stimulus effects of this compound.

This study compared the discriminative stimulus effects of salvinorin A and two synthetic derivatives of salvinorin B to the KOP agonists, U69,593 and U50,488.

Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate U69,593 (0.13 mg/kg, s.c., N = 8) or U50,488 (3.0 mg/kg, i.p., N = 8) under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of food reinforcement were administered substitution tests with salvinorin A (0.125-3.0 mg/kg, i.p.).

Finally, we review evidence for a third set of representations th

Finally, we review evidence for a third set of representations that encodes limb position and is used to represent the location of tactile stimuli relative to the subject using external, non-somatotopic reference frames (postural representations). (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In selleck inhibitor order to fully understand the epithelial mechanics it is essential to integrate different levels of epithelial organization. In this work, we propose a theoretical approach for connecting the macroscopic mechanical properties of a monolayered epithelium

to the mechanical properties at the cellular level. The analysis is based on the established mechanical models-at the macroscopic scale the epithelium is described within the mechanics of thin layers, while the cellular level is modeled in terms of the cellular surface (cortical) tension and the intercellular adhesion. The macroscopic elastic energy of the epithelium is linked to the energy of an average epithelial cell. The epithelial equilibrium state is determined by energy minimization and the macroscopic elastic moduli are calculated from deformations around the equilibrium. The results indicate

that the epithelial equilibrium state is defined by the ratio between the adhesion strength and the cellular surface tension. The lower and the upper bounds for this ratio are estimated. If the ratio is small, the epithelium is cuboidal, if it is large, the epithelium becomes columnar. Importantly, ZD1839 purchase it is found that the cellular cortical tension and the intercellular adhesion alone cannot produce the flattened selleck squamous epithelium. Any difference in the surface tension between the apical and basal cellular sides bends the epithelium towards the side with the larger surface tension. Interestingly, the analysis shows that the epithelial

area expansivity modulus and the shear modulus depend only on the cellular surface tension and not on the intercellular adhesion. The results are presented in a general analytical form, and are thus applicable to a variety of monolayered epithelia, without relying on the specifics of numerical finite-element methods. In addition, by using the standard theoretical tools for multi-laminar systems, the results can be applied to epithelia consisting of layers with different mechanical properties. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The neural circuits underlying initial sensory processing of somatic information are relatively well understood. In contrast, the processes that go beyond primary somatosensation to create more abstract representations related to the body are less clear. In this review, we focus on two classes of higher-order processing beyond somatosensation. Somatoperception refers to the process of perceiving the body itself, and particularly of ensuring somatic perceptual constancy.