suave, B pilosa, neomycin sulfate

suave, B. pilosa, neomycin sulfate GSK1904529A chemical structure or distilled water. The rate of wound contraction, epithelialization, and complete healing were assessed over the experimental

period. Wounds treated with extracts of O. suave, B. pilosa and neomycin sulfate had faster rates of wound contraction (p<0.05) on days 3, 6 and 9 than negative control. Histological examination of wound on day 7 also revealed better collagenation, angiogenesis and organization of the wound tissue. Epithelialisation and total healing time for B. pilosa and O. suave were comparable to neomycin sulfate (p>0.05). In conclusion, extracts of O. suave and B. pilosa show potential for use as alternative to neomycin for treatment of wounds.”
“Lignophenol (LP)-graft-poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (POZO) was prepared to reuse lignin, an industrial waste material, and to

produce SCH 900776 solubility dmso novel LP-based polymer blends with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and polystyrene (PSt) as commodity polymers. The resulting graft polymer was soluble in various types of organic solvents such as chloroform, THF, acetone, and methanol, unlike LP. The miscibility of LP-graft-POZO with commodity polymers was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the glass transition temperatures (Tg). In the cases of the blends of LP-graft-POZO with PVC, PC, and PVP, the Tg values decreased during the second scan. Moreover, in the cases of the blends with PVC and PVP, the Tg values were not detected during the third scan. Therefore, it was inferred that LP-graft-POZO was miscible with PVC, PC, and PVP while forming single phases; in particular, the blends of LP-graft-POZO with PVC and PVP exhibited a secondary miscibility because the Tg values were not detected. Furthermore, the blend of LP-graft-POZO with PC exhibited better thermostability than LP and LP-graft-POZO. These results indicated that LP blended with POZO could be used as a polymer www.selleckchem.com/products/lonafarnib-sch66336.html additive and as an adhesive to combine different polymers, organicinorganic polymers, etc. (c) 2011 Wiley

Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: The use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently recommended for treating uncomplicated malaria. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of repeated administrations of two fixed-dose presentations of ACT – artesunate plus amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) – in subsequent episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Methods: A randomized comparative study was conducted in a rural community of central Senegal from August 2007 to January 2009. Children and adults with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were randomized to receive open-label ASAQ once daily or AL twice daily for three days. Drug doses were given according to body weight. Treatments for first episodes were supervised.

The response gain of corticocerebellar units showed a significant

The response gain of corticocerebellar units showed a significant drop in the leg-rotated position with respect to the control one. Following a change in leg position, a proportion of the recorded neurons showed significant changes in the direction and phase of the response vector. In contrast, vestibular nuclear HDAC inhibitor neurons did not show significant modifications in their response gain and direction. Thus, proprioceptive afferents signaling leg-to-trunk position seem to affect the processing of directional labyrinthine signals within the cerebellar cortex.”
“Background. The symptoms of asthma impair health-related quality of life (HRQoL), increase anxiety

and depression and may keep subjects from engaging in physical exercise. Physical inactivity has been related to poor asthma selleckchem outcomes; however, the association between physical fitness and psychosocial disorders remains poorly understood. Objective. To verify the association between aerobic capacity, HRQoL, and psychological distress in adults with moderate or severe persistent asthma who were clinically stable. Methods. Eighty-eight participants (68 females) with either moderate or severe persistent asthma (age range, 20-60 years) who were under medical treatment for at least 6 months and considered clinically stable were studied. Participants were evaluated on two non-consecutive days. On the first

day, the HRQoL, depression and anxiety levels and pulmonary function were assessed. On the second day, subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results. Using the agglomerative cluster approach, two clusters were identified: 21 participants (24%) were grouped in Cluster 1, and 67 (76%) were grouped in Cluster 2. Asthmatic subjects from Cluster 1 exhibited increased aerobic capacity, better HRQoL and lower depression levels

than did subjects in Cluster 2 (p<.05). No difference was observed between the clusters with respect to gender, age, body mass index (BMI) or pulmonary function (p>.05). TEW-7197 The discriminant function model exhibits good accuracy (R-2 = 0.79) and predicted 93% of the case allocations. Conclusion. Our results suggest an association between reduced exercise capacity, low HRQoL and increases in depressive symptoms in clinically stable asthmatic subjects. These results suggest the need to assess physical fitness and psychosocial distress during asthma treatment and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach.”
“Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis has proven to be quite complex and dynamic with most of the critical events (e.g., transmission, CD4(+) T-cell destruction) occurring in mucosal tissues. In addition, although the resulting disease can progress over years, it is clear that many critical events happen within the first few weeks of infection when most patients are unaware that they are infected.

47%) as main constituents in the extract The polyphenol extract

47%) as main constituents in the extract. The polyphenol extract demonstrated DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 10.6 +/- 0.6 mu g/mL) and effectively inhibited hydroxyl (IC50 24.9 +/- 3.3 mu g/mL), and nitric oxide (IC50 15.01 +/- 1.2 mu g/mL) radicals in vitro. The extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a dose dependent manner by significantly (p < 0.01) inhibiting carrageenan induced paw edema and reducing the weight of granuloma in cotton pellet-induced granuloma model in rats. Results indicated that Jamaican cherries could be a potential source of nutrient supplement with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and require promotion of their consumption for public

health benefits.”
“The application of genomics technology to clinical cardiovascular research is producing Proteasome inhibitor fundamentally new insights concerning the etiology of cardiovascular disease phenotypes. Recent genuine-wide association studies demonstrate clear associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and important cardiovascular phenotypes. Compound C research buy However, risk alleles for the single nucleotide polymotphisms in question do not explain a sufficient portion of individual risk to he useful for screening purposes. Therefore, clinicians should continue to make use of family history to augment risk stratification and emphasize established forms of prevention for their patients with, or at risk for, cardiovascular disease.”
“The

polymeric precursor polystyrene sulphonate beads were used to produce activated carbon spheres (ACSs). ACSs were prepared by carbonization of polymeric precursor at 800 degrees C followed by activation of resultant char with steam and carbon dioxide activation processes. The resulting ACSs were characterized for N(2) adsorption, Raman spectrometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption properties such as, BET surface area (S(BET)), pore volume (V(pore)), and micropore volume (V(micro)) of ACSs produced at different gasification time and temperature with steam and carbon dioxide activation were investigated in this study. It is selleck inhibitor found that porosity of ACSs produced from steam and carbon

dioxide activation increases with increasing activation time. The results exhibited that ACSs produced from above carbon dioxide activation have shown high S(BET) and V(pore) 1266 m(2)/g and 1.13 cm(3)/g respectively compared to ACSs from steam activation SBET 949 m(2)/g and V(pore) 0.98 cm(3)/g, respectively. SEM study revealed that ACSs produced from carbon dioxide activation have exhibited a smooth surface and better microstructure as compared to ACSs from steam activation process. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 2409-2415, 2010″
“PURPOSE: To assess the safety and efficacy of peripheral 360-degree laser retinopexy as prophylaxis against rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in eyes having pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for the removal of retained cataract fragments.


“Objective: To describe a simple technique for pediatric c


“Objective: To describe a simple technique for pediatric cochlear implant receiver-stimulators (R/S) fixation and long term results with it.

Methods: Clinical sample include thirty-two children with severe-to-profound or profound hearing loss candidate for

cochlear implantation. Low-profile devices were used (Med El Concerto (c) and Nucleus CI512 (c)). The R/S was housed into a tight subperiosteal pocket carefully dissected behind the mastoidectomy. The pocket was closed with a single periosteal to bone suture around the posterior edge of mastoidectomy. No skull drilling was required for housing the device.

Results: No intraoperative complications have been observed. 20% of operating time was saved. No migration of R/S over time was apparent at follow up.

Conclusions: The back-pocket technique seems effective in retaining the CI package

Fosbretabulin and in optimizing surgical time and safety in pediatric cochlear implantation. It seems particularly suitable with new generation low profile CI devices. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Silmitasertib Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: Development of renal biomarkers is required to improve on diagnostic accuracy, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy in renal disease. We describe a new method of obtaining from renal specimens a biologic fluid potentially enriched in secreted proteins.

Methods: A renal biopsy specimen was centrifuged, and the LGX818 price interstitial fluid (IF) obtained was evaluated by SELDI-ToF, 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. Twelve spots were extracted from the

2D gel and characterized by MALDI-TOF-MS.

Results: The SELDI diagrams demonstrated abundant peptide peaks. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of many bands indicating a diversity of proteins in the sample. Comparison of serum to IF demonstrated a number of bands that were not shared, suggesting that the IF is not a simple “”replica”" of plasma fluid. Employing 2D-PAGE, 418 spots were identified in the IF sample; 12 spots were selected and analyzed by mass spectrometry.

Conclusions: We have described a novel technique to obtain a biologic fluid that contains a significant quantity and diversity of proteins from renal tissue. The procedure to obtain the fluid is simple and easily applicable to standard renal biopsy procedures. This fluid has the potential to identify informative proteins that are more concentrated than in any other renal biologic fluid previously analyzed and strictly related to renal pathophysiology. Future work includes the development of a clinical protocol to identify and validate informative biomarkers that have diagnostic and prognostic value.

However,

rehabilitation is not systematically utilized in

However,

rehabilitation is not systematically utilized in MS patients.

This study aimed to determine how many patients diagnosed with MS use rehabilitation as a way of treatment and to evaluate correlation between use of rehabilitation and level of impairment.

We analyzed data regarding the use of rehabilitation in the last 2 years in 63 MS patients. Data were gathered using questionnaires during regular visits to neurological outpatient clinic from October to December 2011. Expanded Disability HM781-36B Status Scale (EDSS) was determined for all patients.

One or more types of rehabilitation were used in 41.3 % of questioned patients: inpatient, outpatient and home-based rehabilitation were used in 28.5, 17.4 and 4.7 % of patients, respectively. Average EDSS in group with inpatient rehabilitation was 2.9, in group

with outpatient rehabilitation 3.0 and in group without rehabilitation 1.0. We found that patients who used inpatient, outpatient and home-based rehabilitation had higher level of impairment comparing Lonafarnib to patients who were not rehabilitated (p = 0.002, p = 0.004 and p = 0.021, respectively).

Rehabilitation of MS patients is not systematically provided, especially in early stages of disease when best results can be achieved.”
“The dynamic rheology and morphology of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) and maleic anhydride grafted poly(ethylene octene) composites were investigated. A specific viscoelastic phenomenon, that is, a

second plateau, appeared at low frequencies and exhibited a certain dependence on the content of elastomer particles and the temperature. This phenomenon was attributed to the formation of an aggregation structure of rubber particles. The analyses of the dynamic viscoelastic functions suggested that the heterogeneity of the composites was enhanced as the particle content or temperature increased. The microstructural observation by scanning electron find more microscopy confirmed that maleic anhydride could react with the end groups of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) to form a stable interfacial layer and result in a smaller dispersed-phase particle size due to the reduced interface tension. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 1015-1021, 2010″
“Study Design. Case description.

Objective. To describe a patient with a recurrent primary spinal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis (NCC) that was successfully treated with surgical decompression and medical therapy at our center.

Summary of Background Data. Spinal subarachnoid NCC is thought to be the secondary result from larval migration through the ventricular system into the spinal subarachnoid space. However, this entity can develop as a primary infection through blood stream or direct larval migration.

Mattress displacement was measured using surface reference accele

Mattress displacement was measured using surface reference accelerometers. Mattress displacement >= 5 mm was prospectively defined as minimal clinically important difference. PR qualities of both mattresses were assessed by tissue interface pressure mapping.

Results: During simulated

high quality CC, single mode had significantly more mattress displacement compared to dual mode Selleckchem Ruboxistaurin (mean difference 16.5 +/- 1.4 mm, p < 0.0001) with backboard. This difference was greater when no backboard was used (mean difference 31.7 +/- 1.5 mm, p < 0.0001). Both single mode and dual mode met PR industry guidelines (mean surface pressure < 50 mmHg).

Conclusions: Chest compressions delivered on dual mode pressure reduction crib mattresses resulted in P005091 substantially smaller mattress deflection compared to single mode pressure reduction mattresses. Skin pressure reduction qualities of dual mode pressure reduction crib mattress were maintained. We recommend that backboards continue to be used in order to mitigate mattress deflection during CPR on soft mattresses. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia, and photophobia

(IFAP) syndrome (OMIM 308205) is an extremely rare X-linked oculocutaneous genetic disorder characterized by follicular keratotic papules, total to subtotal alopecia, and photophobia. Previous reports depicted the histopathological features of affected skin lesions, represented by marked follicular plugging and hypoplastic pilosebaceous structures. However, past studies provided limited pathological

information of pilosebaceous unit anomaly. Here, we report a 3-year-old boy’s case with this uncommon condition. In this case, scalp biopsy samples were processed by both vertical and transverse sectioning techniques, which enabled a more detailed and quantitative LY294002 pathological analysis of pilosebaceous structures. In vertical slices, miniaturized anagen hair follicles with characteristic follicular plugs were observed. A transverse section identified abortive sebaceous glands in hair follicles, a finding rarely observed in vertical sections. In addition, a transverse slice demonstrated that the number of total hair follicles was not significantly decreased compared with the average hair follicle density in Asians, suggesting that the pilosebaceous hypoplasia might arise from impaired maturation, not from initiation defect, during hair follicle morphogenesis. This study provides a more comprehensive pathological insight into pilosebaceous anomaly in IFAP syndrome and substantiats the usefulness of the combination of vertical and transverse sectioning approaches in the pathological examination of congenital hypotrichosis, including IFAP syndrome.

0125) Median SF leptin level was highest in stage IV patients (1

0125). Median SF leptin level was highest in stage IV patients (11.1 ng/ml), which was significantly higher compared to all other groups including controls (P < 0.05). Age showed a significant positive correlation with leptin concentrations in OA patients (P < 0.05), but not in controls. These results demonstrate that SF leptin concentrations were closely related to the radiographic severity of OA, suggesting that SF leptin levels could be used as an effective marker

for quantitative Selleckchem C59 detection of OA.”
“The present study investigated the effect of a silane flow rate on chemical bonding structures of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) synthesized by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. The structural and chemical bonding structures were studied by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The peak at 500 cm(-1) in Raman spectra indicated the nanocrystalline SiNWs with outer matrix of a-Si/SiO(2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to study the electronic structure and plasmon energy of SiNWs. The electronic environments of core orbital spectra of Si(2p) and O(1s) have been analyzed by the check details binding energy between constituent atoms. The plasmon spectra from different nanowires were estimated from

curve fitting techniques with varying SiH(4) flow rate. The peak at 17 eV is due to the Si plasmon in core SiNWs while the peak for interstitial Au appeared at similar to 10 eV. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3486021]“
“This study aims to determine whether visual evoked potentials

can aid the diagnosis of functional visual loss and differentiate it from optic neuritis in children. The medical records and visual evoked potentials of 72 patients registered in the neurophysiological database of our Institution in the period AP26113 in vivo 2000-2009, with diagnoses of functional visual loss or optic neuritis were reviewed retrospectively. In 61 children, visual evoked potentials confirmed the diagnosis: 49 functional visual loss and 12 optic neuritis. Visual evoked potentials were normal in all patients but 1 in the functional visual loss group, while all were abnormal in the optic neuritis group. Overlapping clinical features occurred between the 2 groups as well as prevalent severe visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, and papillitis in optic neuritis. Visual evoked potentials are of value in confirming clinical suspicion of functional visual loss, particularly when clinical overlap with optic neuritis occurs.”
“The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentration of cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) in the plasma of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to examine the correlation of cf-DNA with clinical variables of the disease. The study population consisted of 122 SSc patients and 16 healthy controls. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected by direct assessment.

Therefore, in the context of pig-to-human xenotransplantation, we

Therefore, in the context of pig-to-human xenotransplantation, we provide an overview of the recent progress in the studies of relevant viruses including well known problematic viruses, such as herpesviruses and porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) in addition to some emerging issues regarding other pathogens.

Recent findings

The ability of herpesvirus to infect

across species barriers is probably underestimated and requires monitoring and control of both xenograft donors and recipients for latent infection. Exclusion from donors and recipient monitoring for other exogenous pathogens including newly identified Parvovirus-4 are warranted. The availability of the swine whole AG-881 cost genome sequence may help to characterize and select donor animals with less PERV infectivity. Rigorous PERV monitoring in both clinical and preclinical xenotransplantation experiments must be included in clinical protocols.

Summary

A wide range of pathogens, both viruses and bacteria, pose potential safety problems in xenotransplantation, highlighting the importance of prescreening of the donor animals, and careful monitoring and follow-up of the patients.”
“Background: GSK2879552 manufacturer The serum concentrations of ferritin and

adiponectin are associated with several metabolic disorders and have been used as predictors of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. But there have been no reports demonstrating a direct correlation between serum ferritin and adiponectin levels. We performed this study to evaluate the association between serum ferritin and adiponectin concentrations.

Subjects and methods: We evaluated a total of 995 subjects from the Korea Rural Genomic Cohort Study in a population-based cross-sectional study. Extensive clinical and laboratory measurements, including adiponectin and ferritin concentrations, were recorded.

Results: Univariate analysis revealed that the serum adiponectin level was correlated with age, sex, BMI, diastolic blood pressure,

triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, and ferritin. Multivariate selleck chemical analysis demonstrated that the adiponectin concentration was correlated with age, BMI, fasting glucose, hs-CRP, and ferritin. The ferritin concentration was the most powerfully associated with serum adiponectin. In non-diabetic subgroups, the adiponectin level was correlated with BMI, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, and ferritin level in multivariate analysis. In diabetic subgroups, the adiponectin level was correlated with BMI, triglyceride, hs-CRP, and ferritin level in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: The serum adiponectin concentration was correlated with conventional clinical variables, but the most powerfully associated factor was the serum ferritin level.”
“Acquired cutis laxa (ACL) is a rare connective tissue disorder that affects the skin elastic fibers, resulting in the loss of elasticity.

4% and 67 7% of ustekinumab 45 and 90 mg patients achieved PASI 7

4% and 67.7% of ustekinumab 45 and 90 mg patients achieved PASI 75, respectively, compared with 6.5% in the placebo group (P < 0.0001 each). PASI 75 responses were maintained through week 64 in 65.0% and 78.6% of the ustekinumab-treated patients, respectively. Placebo cross-over patients had similar responses to ustekinumab-treated patients. Significant improvements in PGA, DLQI and VAS scores were observed at week 12 and generally maintained over time. Adverse events during the placebo-controlled period were similar among groups (45 mg, 65.6%; 90 mg, 59.7%; placebo, 65.6%). Serious adverse events were observed in 0%, 4.8% and 6.3% of patients, respectively. Through week

72, similar rates and types of adverse events and serious adverse events were reported in SIS3 patients receiving 45 and 90 mg. Rates of injection site reactions and antibodies to ustekinumab were low. Ustekinumab was efficacious and generally well-tolerated in Japanese patients with moderate-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis through 72 weeks. These results are consistent with those reported in the global, phase 3 studies.”
“Objectives: Pooled-studies publications (PSPs) present statistical analyses of multiple randomized controlled trials without a systematic literature search or critical appraisal. We explored the characteristics

of PSPs and their potential impact on a systematic review (SR).

Study Design and Setting: We systematically evaluated PSPs excluded from an SR of second-generation antidepressants. We analyzed their this website basic characteristics, risk of bias, and the effect of new data on review conclusions.

Results: We identified 57 PSPs containing a median of five trials (range, 2-11) and 1,233 patients (range, 117-2,919). Ninety-six percent of PSPs were industry funded, and 49% of PSPs contained unpublished data. The median number of citations for PSPs was 29 (range, 0-549). Only 7% planned pooling a priori, and

19% combined trials with identical protocols. Fifty-nine percent of PSPs eligible for general efficacy provided no new data. For some subgroups and accompanying symptoms (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, melancholia, fatigue, sex, and race), more than 30% of PSPs presented entirely new data or data that could alter the strength of the evidence available in the SR.

Conclusion: In this case study, PSPs provided new information on subgroups and secondary Quizartinib outcomes; however, guidance for reviewers and development of a system to assess their susceptibility to bias are required. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This review highlights research on sex-based differences in pain perception and treatment. We sought to illuminate the complex factors contributing to differences in pain and analgesic responses between males and females, ranging from psychosocial to biological processes.

We reviewed published studies of pain induction by chemical, electric, heat, surgical, or psychological means, and opioid and nonopioid analgesia comparing responses in men and women.

A reliable preclinical model of hyperalgesia during opioid withdr

A reliable preclinical model of hyperalgesia during opioid withdrawal is needed to evaluate possible interventions to alleviate withdrawal. The following study describes a method for assessing increases in thermal sensitivity on the hotplate in a mouse model of spontaneous morphine withdrawal. Methods: C57BL/6J mice received 5.5 days of 30, 56, or 100 mg/kg morphine or saline (s.c., twice daily). In Experiment I, thermal sensitivity data were collected at baseline and at 8, 24, 32, 48 h and 1 week following the final injection. Thermal sensitivity was assessed by examining latency to respond on a hotplate across a range

of temperatures (50, 52, 54, and 56 degrees C). In Experiment II, 0.01 mg/kg buprenorphine was administered 30 min prior to each testing session during the withdrawal period. Tariquidar supplier In Experiment III, jumping Dibutyryl-cAMP nmr during a 30 min period was assessed at baseline and at 0, 8, 24, 32, and 48 h following the final morphine injection. Results: During the withdrawal period, thermal sensitivity increased significantly in all morphine-treated mice

as compared to saline-treated mice. Thermal sensitivity was greater in mice treated with 56 mg/kg morphine compared to 30 mg/kg and peaked earlier than in mice treated with 100 mg/kg (32 h v 1 wk). The increase in thermal sensitivity following 56 mg/kg morphine was attenuated by a dose of buprenorphine that did not produce antinociception alone (i.e., 0.01 mg/kg). In general, the results of the jumping experiment paralleled those obtained in Experiment I. Discussion:

Response latency on the hotplate is a reliable and sensitive measure of spontaneous morphine withdrawal in mice, making it an ideal behavior for assessing the potential of medications and environmental interventions to alleviate opioid withdrawal. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Double-outlet right ventricle (DORV)/Taussig-Bing (TB) anomaly is the second most common type of DORV. This study evaluates our experience and outcomes of total correction of DORV-TB anomaly at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center. We conducted GSK1904529A ic50 a retrospective study for all cases of TB anomaly repaired between June 2001 and April 2009. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A included patients repaired with arterial switch operation, and group (B) included patients repaired with Rastelli procedure. Thirteen patients with TB anomaly underwent total correction. There were 5 male (38%) and 8 female (62%) patients. Mean age and weight at surgery were 6.8 +/- A 6 weeks and 3.6 +/- A 0.7 kg, respectively. Of the 13 patients, 9 (69%) were in group A, and 4 (31%) were in group B.