However, the functional significance of theta oscillations in hum

However, the functional significance of theta oscillations in human memory processes remains largely unknown. Here, we review studies in human and animals examining how scalp-recorded FMT relates to memory behaviors and also their possible neural generators. We also discuss models of the functional relevance of theta oscillations to memory processes and suggest promising directions for future research. (C) 2013 PKA inhibitor Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Our aim is to describe the effect of circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies on the endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and early structural changes of the vascular wall that surround peripheral arterial disease. For this purpose, an observational translational

controlled selleckchem study was carried out. We included 32 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease and 16 healthy control individuals with no previous autoimmune disease. We assessed the flow-mediated arterial dilatation as a marker of endothelial function, the carotid intima-media thickness and the plasma levels of C-reactive protein in all the subjects. Circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies were detected with indirect immunofluorescence. We found a higher prevalence of these autoantibodies

in patients than in controls (40% vs. 6%; P=0.01). Flow-mediated arterial dilatation was lower in subjects with anti-endothelial cell antibodies [3.10% (0-5.05%) vs. 12.54% (6.74-18.40%); P<0.01]. Carotid intima-media thickness [1.04 (0.78-1.17) vs. 0.72 (0.54-1.02) mm; P=0.01] and C-reactive protein level [10.00 (3.50-14.80) A-1210477 cost vs. 3.00 (3.00-6.95) mg/l; P=0.01] were higher in subjects seropositive for these autoantibodies. We concluded that circulating anti-endothelial cell antibodies could be associated with peripheral arterial disease in individuals with no

previous autoimmune disease; however, further prospective studies are required to establish a causal relationship. (c) 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“The effects of different levels of dietary crude protein on the development, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and total midgut protease activity of honey bees were investigated in the study. A total of 30 colonies of bees with sister queens were used in the test. Dietary treatments were pure rape pollen (Control) and pollen substitutes (PS) with crude protein (CP) levels at 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35% (designated as PS15, PS20, PS25, PS30, and PS35), respectively. We compared the effects of these diets on honey bees by measuring diet consumption, bee development (egg hatch, pupation success, and pupal weight), and the protein content of emergent adult bees, their antioxidant status and the activity of their midgut digestive proteases. Bees consumed significantly more (P < 0.001) natural pollen than any PS, and bees fed PS had similar diet consumption over the entire experimental period.

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