For the regulatory authorities in Europe, however, it is unclear whether FDCs in general have a positive benefit-risk balance. Hence, more research is needed to show that use of FDCs improves treatment effectiveness through better compliance, adherence and quality of life for patients, which may lead to a positive pharmacoeconomical benefit for society. Evidence-based
data are thus needed, especially Liproxstatin-1 for those patient groups requiring multiple drugsfor example, the elderly. In this context, hospital practice regarding FDCs is crucial, as the recommended pharmacotherapy at discharge of the patient serves as a role model for outpatient care, and therefore needs greater recognition. The benefit-risk balance and pharmacoeconomical consequences of FDCs should also be a subject for attention in the hospital pharmacy setting.”
“Background and objectives Patients with immune-mediated kidney disease and liver failure often require plasma exchange (PE) and hemodialysis (HD). Combining both methods (i.e., connecting the PE and HD circuits in series [tandem dialysis]) should allow for a more efficient treatment. This work reviews the authors’ experience with tandem blood purification. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Chart review was utilized to retrospectively analyze the efficacy and tolerability of 92
combined PE/HD (cPE/HD) sessions in 26 children in comparison with 113 sequential PE/HD (sPE/HD) treatments performed in 32 children between 1988 and 2012 at the University of Heidelberg Center for MMP inhibitor Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. Eleven children received both treatment modalities. Results The mean treatment duration was 3.8 +/- 2.2 hours per cPE/HD and 5.9 +/- 1.6 hours per sPE/HD session (P smaller than 0.001). Dialyzer surface areas per body Rabusertib order surface area (in meters squared) and blood flow rates were similar. Although a 3-fold higher initial bolus of heparin was administered with cPE/HD, the heparin dose per hour was similar with both modalities and the total heparin load was only slightly lower with cPE/HD, with a median 2939 IU/m(2) per session (interquartile
range, 1868, 4189) versus 3341 IU/m(2) per session (interquartile range, 2126, 4792). In sessions with regional anticoagulation, equal citrate and calcium infusion rates were applied. Plasma turnover, ultrafiltration rates, and solute removal were comparable. Procedure-related problems developed in 14.0% of cPE/HD and 7.0% of sPE/HD sessions (P=0.37). Clinical symptoms occurred in 19.6% and 6.2% (P=0.05), necessitating treatment discontinuation in 12.0% and 5.3% of the sessions (P=0.14). Infra-individual comparison of both dialysis methods in 11 children reconfirmed these findings. Conclusions cPE/HD is a time-saving procedure relative to sPE/HD, but may be associated with a higher rate of procedure-related and clinical adverse events.
Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Experimental data suggest
that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-3 have a central role in the remodeling period after a myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study was to use an experimental small-animal model to investigate the fluctuation in MMP-3 levels occurring in vivo after an acute MI.\n\nMethods: We studied 13 New Zealand white rabbits weighing between 3 and 4 kg. After anesthetizing the animals, we performed a tracheotomy and induced an acute MI in 10 of the animals by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 minutes. The remaining 3 rabbits constituted the control group. Three hours after reperfusion, blood samples were taken for biomedical analyses.\n\nResults: Three hours after the artificially induced acute MI, serum MMP-3 levels were decreased by almost 50%. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) Pfizer Licensed Compound Library cost concentrations were increased greatly (90-fold) after MI, further validating the efficiency of our experimental in vivo model of acute MI.\n\nConclusion: Combining the data, we demonstrated that acute MI caused an early reduction in MMP-3 levels.
The range of MMP-3 reduction is limited compared with other factors predicting MI, such as cTnI, which increases its usefulness. We demonstrated, however, that plasma fluctuation in MMP-3 levels could be used as a supplementary independent predictor selleckchem of cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease. This acute MI model used in our controlled setting proved to be a reliable and safe method for conducting in vivo studies.”
“Objective This study aimed to explore the possible association between formaldehyde exposure and lung cancer risk.\n\nMethods Data were collected in two population-based case-control studies conducted in Montreal, Selleckchem AR-13324 Canada. Cases were individuals diagnosed with incident, histologically-confirmed lung cancer. Controls were randomly selected from electoral lists and frequency-matched
to cases by age, sex, and electoral district of residence. Interviews for the two studies were conducted in 1979-1986 and 1996-2002, using a virtually identical questionnaire to obtain lifetime occupational and smoking history and several lifestyle covariates. Experts reviewed the detailed work history for each participant to assess exposure to several occupational agents, including formaldehyde. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between several metrics of formaldehyde exposure and lung cancer, adjusting for smoking and occupational and sociodemographic factors.\n\nResults In all, 2060 lung cancer cases and 2046 population controls were interviewed and assessed for exposure. About 25% of subjects had ever been occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. The adjusted OR for lung cancer was 1.06(95% CI 0.89-1.27) comparing ever versus never exposure to formaldehyde.
C/EBPa was able to significantly reverse the inhibitory activity of E4BP4 on SREBP-1 a promoter. These results demonstrated that HBx activates SREBP-la activity at the transcription level through a complex mechanism involving two bZIP transcription factors C/EBP and E4BP4 with C/EBP being the dominant positive factor. Finally, we showed that knocking down SREBP-1 abolishes HBV enhancer II/core promoter activation by HBx. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Tacrolimus causes post-transplant diabetes mellitus, Ulixertinib research buy however the pathogenetic mechanisms
remain controversial. In this study we probed into the mechanisms of tacrolimus-induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Glucose levels were determined on whole blood samples using a glucose oxidase method. Levels of serum insulin and C-peptide
were measured with ELISA. Histological damage AZD6094 datasheet of ultra-structure and apoptosis of beta cells of the pancreas were assayed with electric microscope and tunnel methods respectively.-Ultra-structure were assayed with electric microscope and apoptosis of beta cells of the pancreas were assayed with tunel methods. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to detect the sum of insulin receptors of hepatic cells. Results: Compared to control group, insulin and C peptide levels in serum decreased in rats of diabetes mellitus models induced with FK506(P < 0.05). Compared to the control group, the sum of apoptosis body in pancreatic islets increased in rats of diabetes mellitus models induced with FK506 (P < 0.05). Compared to the control group, electron microscopy showed cytoplasm swelling and vacuolization, and marked decrease or absence of dense-core secretory granules in beta cells in rats
with diabetes mellitus induced with FK506.Compared to the control group, expression of insulin receptor of hepatic cell decreased in rats of diabetes mellitus models induced with FK506 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Pathogenetic mechanisms of rats of diabetes mellitus models induced with FK506 including reduction of secretion find more of insulin in beta cells of pancreatic islets, damages of ultra-structure of beta cells of pancreatic islets, increasing of apoptosis of beta cells of pancreatic islets and decreasing of expression of insulin receptors in hepatic cells.</.”
“People with a psychiatric illness are at high risk for suicide; however, variation of the risk by patients’ sex and age and by specific diagnosis needs to be explored in a more detail. This large population study systematically assesses suicide incidence rate ratio (IRR) and population attributable risk (PAR) associated with various psychiatric disorders by comparing 21,169 suicides in Denmark over a 17-year period with sex-age-time-matched population controls.
\n\nConclusions QOL needs to be added as an essential outcome measure in patient care. Further research should be conducted to better understand the nature of comorbidities in PD as well as to determine whether additional interventions that have been studied in other psychiatric disorders, such as exercise, meditation, yoga, humor, massage,
and nutritional supplements, can be utilized to improve QOL in PD to normal community levels.”
“Objectives/HypothesisTo study the role of plasma Screening Library Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after previous chemoradiation. Study DesignProspective. MethodsSixty patients with recurrent NPC were recruited, and their plasma EBV DNA was checked preoperatively, 1 week postoperatively, and 6
months thereafter. In a pilot group of 30 patients, further testing AG-881 clinical trial was performed at 60 minutes after tumor resection. The plasma EBV DNA level was correlated with tumor T classification, resection margin status, and subsequent relapse. ResultsThe mean preoperative plasma EBV DNA reflected the tumor load (T1: 48 copies/mL, T2: 316 copies/mL, T3: 890 copies/mL, P=.03). It was significantly higher in patients with positive margins at the time of surgery (722 vs. 126 copies/mL, P=.02) and in those with subsequent systemic metastasis (668 vs. 92 copies/mL, P=.01). However, it failed to predict local recurrence after surgery. Postoperative plasma EBV DNA was undetectable in all patients with positive resection margins. Serial measurements were able to identify 87.5% of local recurrences and 100% of distance metastases. ConclusionsIn patients with recurrent NPC requiring salvage nasopharyngectomy, preoperative plasma EBV DNA identifies patients at high-risk of subsequent distant failure after surgery. Serial measurements of plasma EBV DNA after surgery, especially for those with high preoperative levels, is crucial to allow early detection of local of distant failure.”
“The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains a challenge. Detection of galactomannan in serum and bronchoalveolar selleck kinase inhibitor lavage is a useful tool;
however due to methodological and economic reasons, the test frequencies of galactomannan assays vary from daily to weekly, which constitute a risk to the patient. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and correlate the performance of the new kit Aspergillus-LFD with the GM-EIA. Aspergillus-LFD kit represents a fast, economical and simple test; showed a good performance and excellent correlation with GM-ETA kit. Given the above, the Aspergillus-LFD is emerging as an alternative to consider in the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.”
“Background: Despite the high co-morbidity of depressive symptoms in patients with multiple somatic symptoms, the validity of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) has not yet been investigated in Chinese patients with multiple somatic symptoms.
“Postpartum hemorrhage is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality after delivery. Active management of postpartum hemorrhage by an uterotonic drug decreases the rate of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on full term pregnant women candidate for vaginal delivery, referred to Zahedan Imam Ali Hospital
during 2008-2009. They were randomly divided into two groups of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin. The women in misoprostol group received 400 mu g rectal misoprostol after delivery and the women in oxytocin group received 3 IU oxytocin in 1 L ringer serum, GDC-0068 molecular weight AZD9291 chemical structure intravenously. Rate of bleeding, need to any surgery interventions, rate of transfusion and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrite were compared between two groups. A total of 400 patients (200 cases in misoprostol group and 200 in oxytocin group) entered to the study. Rate of bleeding > 500 cc was significantly higher
in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (33% vs. 19%) (p = 0.005). Also, need to excessive oxytocin for management of postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower in misoprostol group than oxytocin group (18% vs. 30%) (p = 0.003). Decrease in hematocrite was significantly more observed in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (mean decrease of hematocrite was 1.3 +/- 1.6 in misoprostol group and 1.6 +/- 2.2 in oxytocin group). Two groups were similar in terms of side-effects. Rectal misoprostol as an uterotonic drug can decrease postpartum hemorrhage and also can prevent from decrease of hemoglobin as compared to oxytocin.”
“We investigate the upconversion emission of CaWO4:Tm3+/Yb3+ polycrystals prepared by the high-temperature
solid-state method. The crystal structure of the polycrystals is characterized by means of x-ray diffraction. Under the excitation of a 980 nm continuous wave diode laser, the samples show intense blue upconversion emissions centered at 473 nm, Bafilomycin A1 corresponding to the (1)G(4)-> H-3(6) transition of Tm3+. The dependence of the upconversion emission intensity on the pump power of a laser diode is measured, and the results indicate that the two-photon and three-photon processes contribute simultaneously to the blue upconversion emissions. The possible multi-photon upconversion process and upconversion mechanisms are discussed.”
“The catalytic oxidative decomposition of 1,2-dichoroethane was examined over a series of Ce/Zr mixed oxides (CeO2, Ce0.8Zr0.2O2, Ce0.5Zr0.5O2, Ce0.15Zr0.85O2 and ZrO2) treated with a 1 M aqueous solution of H2SO4 or HNO3. After calcination at 550 degrees C, the doped samples were characterised by dynamic thermogravimetry. X-ray diffraction.
The main finding was a significant increase in the expression of postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 in AD brains, revealed on both sections and immunoblots, while the expression of spinophilin, associated to spines, remained quantitatively unchanged despite qualitative changes with age and disease.
Presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein indicated an increased immunohistochemical level, while synaptophysin remained unchanged. MAP2, a somatodendritic microtubule protein, as well as AD markers such as amyloid-beta protein and phosphorylated protein tau showed 5-Fluoracil an increased expression on immunosections in AD. Altogether these changes suggest neuritic and synaptic reorganization in the process of AD. In particular, the significant increase in PSD-95 expression suggests a change in NMDA receptors trafficking and may represent a novel marker of functional significance for the disease.”
“Mutations in parkin are the second most common known cause of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Parkin is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that monoubiquitinates and polyubiquitinates proteins to regulate a variety of cellular processes. Loss of parkin’s E3 ligase activity is thought to play a pathogenic role in both inherited and sporadic PD. Here, we review parkin biology and pathobiology and its role in the pathogenesis of PD. (C) 2010 Movement Disorder Society”
Lifestyle interventions affect patients’ risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MeSy), a pre-stage to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and related complications. An effective lifestyle intervention AZD9291 molecular weight P505-15 chemical structure is the Swedish Bjorknas intervention, a 3-year randomized controlled trial in primary care for MeSy patients. To include future disease-related cost and health consequences in a cost-effectiveness analysis, a simulation model was used to estimate the short-term (3-year) and long-term (lifelong) cost-effectiveness of the Bjorknas study.\n\nMethodology/Principal
Findings: A Markov micro-simulation model was used to predict the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for MeSy-related diseases based on ten risk factors. Model inputs were levels of individual risk factors at baseline and at the third year. The model estimated short-term and long-term costs and QALYs for the intervention and control groups. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention was assessed using differences-in-differences approach to compare the changes between the groups in the health care and societal perspectives, using a 3% discount rate. A 95% confidence interval (CI), based on bootstrapping, and sensitivity analyses describe the uncertainty in the estimates. In the short-term, costs are predicted to increase over time in both groups, but less in the intervention group, resulting in an average cost saving/reduction of US$-700 (in 2012, US $ 1= six point five seven SEK) and US$-500, in the societal and health care perspectives.
The analysis of apoptosis-related protein expression profile showed that not only molecules with pro-but also those with anti-apoptotic functions are overexpressed, indicating that survival mechanisms could be possibly protecting
cells against apoptosis caused by viral, immune, oxidative and/or genotoxic stresses. These observations led us to propose that in dengue patients there is an association between T cell susceptibility to apoptosis and BI-D1870 the activation state. The mechanisms for understanding the immunopathogenesis during dengue infection are discussed.(C) 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“This study was aimed to establish a stable animal model of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) to provide theoretical and experimental basis for understanding the development of LVH. The abdominal aorta of male Wistar rats (80-100 g) was constricted buy FRAX597 to a diameter of 0.55 mm between the branches of the celiac and anterior mesenteric arteries. Echocardiography using a linear phased array probe was performed as well as pathological examination and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurement at 3, 4 and 6 weeks after abdominal aortic constriction (AAC). The results showed that the acute mortality rate (within 24 h) of this modified rat model was 8%. Animals who underwent AAC
demonstrated significantly increased interventricular septal (IVS), LV posterior wall (LVPWd), LV mass index (LVMI), cross-sectional area (CSA) of myocytes, and perivascular fibrosis; the ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), and cardiac output (CO) were consistently
lower at each time point after AAC. Notably, differences in these parameters between AAC group and sham group were significant by 3 weeks and reached peaks at 4th week. Following AAC, the plasma BNP was gradually elevated compared with the sham group at 3rd and 6th week. It was concluded that this modified AAC model can develop LVH, both stably and safely, by week four post-surgery; echocardiography is able to assess changes in chamber dimensions and systolic properties accurately in rats with LVH.”
“Astrocytes Bucladesine are glial cells specific to the central nervous system and involved in numerous brain functions, including regulation of synaptic transmission and of immune reactions. There is mounting evidence suggesting astrocytic dysfunction in psychopathologies such as major depression, however, little is known about the underlying etiological mechanisms. Here we report a two-stage study investigating genome-wide DNA methylation associated with astrocytic markers in depressive psychopathology. We first characterized prefrontal cortex samples from 121 individuals (76 who died during a depressive episode and 45 healthy controls) for the astrocytic markers GFAP, ALDH1L1, SOX9, GLUL, SCL1A3, GJA1 and GJB6.
Although computer simulations for a limited
number of proteins have found some transiently open channels, it is not clear if there exist more channels elsewhere or how the channels are regulated. A systematic approach that can map out the whole ligand migration channel network is lacking. Ligand migration in a dynamic CA4P protein resembles closely a well-studied problem in robotics, namely, the navigation of a mobile robot in a dynamic environment. In this work, we present a novel robotic motion planning inspired approach that can map the ligand migration channel network in a dynamic protein. The method combines an efficient spatial mapping of protein inner space with a temporal exploration of protein structural heterogeneity, which is represented by a structure ensemble. The spatial mapping of each conformation in the ensemble produces a partial map of protein inner cavities and their inter-connectivity. These maps are then merged to form a super map that contains all the channels that open dynamically. Results on the pathways in myoglobin for gaseous ligands demonstrate the efficiency of our approach in mapping the ligand migration channel networks. The results, obtained in a significantly less amount of time than trajectory-based approaches, Kinase Inhibitor Library datasheet are in agreement with
previous simulation results. Additionally, the method clearly illustrates how and what conformational changes open or close a channel.”
“Breast cancer is a global public health burden with more than one million new diagnoses worldwide each year. As a significant proportion of women with early-stage breast cancer experience a relapse and metastatic breast cancer is generally incurable, therapeutic
innovations are ongoing. One notable innovation in recent decades has been the identification of a subset of breast cancers that overexpress FK228 manufacturer the transmembrane glycoprotein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and the consequent development of HER2-targeted therapy. Given the significant benefits demonstrated with the HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, in the adjuvant and metastatic settings, investigators have endeavored to develop novel mechanisms for disrupting HER2-mediated signaling. Lapatinib, an orally available HER1- and HER2-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, represents one such notable innovation. Lapatinib is currently being evaluated in both the adjuvant and metastatic settings and was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in combination with capecitabine, for the treatment of women with HER2-positive, pretreated, metastatic breast cancer. However, the ideal strategy for incorporating novel HER2-targeted agents, including lapatinib, into existing management paradigms is uncertain.”
“Objective: Patients with schizophrenia show deficits in visuospatial working memory and visual pursuit processes.
The patient underwent en bloc radical esophagectomy with a two-field lymph node dissection of the upper abdomen
and GSK2879552 mediastinum via a left-sided posterolateral thoracotomy through the seventh intercostal space. The upper end of the esophagus was resected 5 cm above the tumor. The gastric remnant was used for reconstruction of the esophago-gastrostomy and placed in the left thoracic cavity. The patient started a liquid diet on postopera-tive day 8 and was discharged on the 10th postoperative day without complications. In this report, we demonstrate that the gastric remnant may be used for reconstruction in patients with esophageal cancer as a substitute organ after distal gastrectomy. (C) 2013 Baishideng. All rights reserved.”
“We CBL0137 research buy report here an autopsy case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) without hereditary burden and with a clinical course typical of sporadic CJD. A 77-year old man developed memory disturbance, followed by gait disturbance and myoclonus. He died of bronchopneumonia 5 months after the disease onset. Post-mortem examination revealed neuronal loss, astrocytosis, and patchy spongiosis in the cerebral cortex and lenticular nuclei. Synaptic-type deposits of prion protein were present in the cerebral cortex. Additionally, Lewy bodies were observed in the cerebral cortex and substantia nigra. Furthermore, senile plaques compatible with definite Alzheimer’s disease according to
Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease criteria and neurofibrillary changes of the limbic system consistent with Braak stage IV were found. Based on a review of the published literature, this autopsy case is very rare, and we suppose that the incidence of CJD accompanied by Lewy body disease and Alzheimer’s disease is very low.”
“Antioxidants protect the body against
oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals. Plants contain rich amount Selleckchem Vorinostat of polyphenols which are very potent natural antioxidants. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative contribution of different polyphenols such as total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonol contents and their antioxidants activities. For this purpose the total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonol contents of some medicinal plants were determined in the aqueous extracts of leaves of Trichosenthes dioica, fruits of Moringa olifera and Ficus bengalensis as well as seeds of Emblica officinalis. Total antioxidant activity of these extracts was monitored by Free Radical Absorbing Power (FRAP) assay. In this paper, those parts of the plants are used for the analysis of aforesaid parameters which are normally overlooked. The total phenolic content of T. dioica leaves was about two times more than that obtained from the fruits and seeds of M. olifera and E. officinalis, respectively. However, the aerial roots of F. bengalensis registered presence of least phenolic content. The aqueous preparation from E.
Src inhibition also led to a dramatic decrease in the cell invasion in addition to decreasing the cellular growth. We suggest that targeting Src kinase could be an effective strategy to inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis.”
“Recent studies suggest that olive extracts suppress inflammation and reduce stress oxidative injury. We sought to extend these observations in an in vivo study of rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.\n\nFour
groups, each of 18 Wister rats, were studied. One (control) group received distilled A-1331852 order water, while three treatment groups received oral olive leaf extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg/day respectively). After 30 days, blood lipid profiles were determined, before a 60 mm period of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 24 h reperfusion, neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier permeability were each assessed in subgroups
of six animals drawn from each main group.\n\nOlive LBH589 leaf extract reduced the LDL/HDL ratio in doses 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg/day in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001), and offered cerebroprotection from ischemia-reperfusion. For controls vs. doses of 50 mg/kg/day vs. 75 mg/kg/day vs. 100 mg/kg/day, attenuated corrected infarct volumes were 209.79 +/- 33.05 mm(3) vs. 164.36 +/- 13.44 mm(3) vs. 123.06 +/- 28.83 mm(3) vs. 94.71 +/- 33.03 mm(3); brain water content of the infarcted hemisphere 82.33 +/- 0.33% vs. 81.33 +/- 0.66% vs. MRT67307 80.75 +/- 0.6% vs. 80.16 +/- 0.47%, and blood-brain barrier permeability of the infarcted hemisphere 11.22 +/- 2.19 mu g/g vs. 9.56 +/- 1.74 mu g/g vs. 6.99 +/- 1.48 mu g/g vs. 5.94 +/- 1.73 mu g/g tissue (P<0.05 and P<0.01 for measures in doses 75 and 100 mg/kg/day vs. controls respectively).\n\nOral administration of olive leaf extract reduces infarct volume, brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and improves neurologic deficit scores after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (C) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“In the current review there are 19 patents from an initial list of 285 that
met the search criteria. Despite there being slightly fewer than usual, there is probably more chemistry described because several of the patents contain some detailed process schemes. Antidepressants are regular subjects in patents, and an enantioselective hydrogenation is described for preparing aminoalcohols that are used as intermediates in producing duloxetine and related drugs. A second patent on antidepressants describes a new demethylation method that can be used in the preparation of desvenlafaxine, the active metabolite in venlafaxine. Those readers who are trying to stop smoking may be interested in two patents. One is a process to produce chinazoline alkaloids that can be used to treat nicotine addition.