“Objective: One in three cancer patients

will expe

“Objective: One in three cancer patients

will experience significant psychosocial distress, yet less than 10% will seek formal counseling. Who are the patients accessing counseling and what are their presenting needs? The purpose of this study was to identify referral patterns and psychosocial distress in cancer patients newly referred to a psycho-oncology counseling service.

Methods: Consecutive new referrals were tracked over 1 year Selleckchem URMC-099 (n=361). On initial visit, 145 patients completed a demographic survey, Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), Cancer Coping Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey.

Results: Approximately one in five newly referred patients never attended counseling, with a significant representation of men (p=0.016) and lung cancer patients (p=0.010). Of 361 referrals, 295 patients attended initial counseling, 259 were approached, and 145/259 (56%) completed the survey. Most were women (79%), urban-dwelling (73%), diagnosed Epacadostat purchase with non-advanced cancer (72%), well-educated (68%) and married (56%); average age of 52 years (SD=12.3). Two most common diagnoses were breast (36%) and genitourinary (14%) cancers. A total of 59% were significantly distressed (BSI-18 global severity index T-score >= 63) with less available social support than non-distressed patients (p=0.022). Coping strategy use did not differ significantly between distressed

and non-distressed groups. Two of five patients were not significantly distressed.

Conclusions: Most cancer patients attending counseling are well-educated urban residing women, with significant psychosocial distress. Further research

is needed to better understand barriers and appropriate screening methods for accessing counseling, as well as the needs of men, advanced cancer patients, rural residents, and less well-educated people. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Background. 5 alpha-Reductase deficiency (5RD) is an uncommon autosomal recessive disorder of sexual differentiation. Pevonedistat It results from impaired conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone due to mutations in the steroid 5 alpha-reductase type 2 gene (SRD5A2). Mutations in SRD5A2 have not been previously reported in Indian patients with 5RD.

Aim: To delineate the clinical features and mutations in the SRD5A2 gene in Indian patients with 5RD.

Patients and Methods: The SRD5A2 gene was sequenced in two unrelated patients with elevated testosterone/dihydrotestosterone ratio and in one patient with classical clinical features and virilization at puberty (in whom the ratio could not be measured due to prior gonadectomy). The prevalence of SRD5A2 mutations was also studied in 52 healthy ethnic control subjects by PCR-RFLP.

Results: Two patients, both from the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, carried the homozygous missense mutation p.

Using an identified LPeD1 neuron from Lymnaea


Using an identified LPeD1 neuron from Lymnaea

stagnalis, we sought to determine how lidocaine affects these factors and how lidocaine is related to damage of the cell membrane.

Cell size and morphological form were measured by a micrograph and imaging analysis system. Membrane potential and survival rate were obtained by intracellular recording. Membrane resistance and capacitance were measured by whole-cell patch clamp. Phosphatidyl serine and nucleic acid were double stained and simultaneously measured by annexin V and propidium iodide.

Lidocaine at a clinical dose (5-20 mM) induced morphological change (bulla Autophagy inhibitor and bleb) in the neuron and increased cell size in a concentration-dependent manner. Membrane potential was depolarized in a concentration-dependent manner. At perfusion of more than 5 mM lidocaine, the depolarized membrane potential was irreversible. Lidocaine decreased membrane resistance and increased membrane capacitance in a concentration-dependent manner. Both phosphatidyl serine and nucleic acid were stained under lidocaine exposure in a concentration-dependent manner.

A clinical dose of lidocaine greater than 5 mM destroys the cell

membrane and induces both necrosis and apoptosis in an identified NU7441 nmr Lymnaea neuron.”
“Aims: To report the conclusions of the Think Tank on mechanisms of incontinence and surgical cure in female and male SUI: surgical research initiatives during the ICI-RS meeting in 2010. Methods: The sub-group considered five areas for future research in stress urinary incontinence (SUI); (i) epidemiology and public health efforts in

SUI, (ii) the basic sciences examining the physiology and pathophysiology of the continence mechanism, (iii) diagnostic techniques and clinical assessment of SUI, (iv) the future of treatment and surgical cure, and (v) the separate issue of male SUI. Results: Roadblocks to progress were identified for each of the five DZNeP clinical trial directions. Conclusions: Future research directions are suggested for each of these areas. Neurourol. Urodynam 30:704-707, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Drug addiction is thought to result from an intractable and aberrant learning and memory in response to drug-related stimulation, and cholinergic neurotransmission plays an important role in this process. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) is the precursor of the hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide (HCNP), an 11 amino acid peptide that enhances the production of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and assists in the development of cholinergic projections from the medial septal nuclei to the hippocampus. However, whether PEBP is involved in drug addiction remains unclear. In the present study, PEBP expression in the hippocampus, as detected by proteomics analysis, was found to be dramatically up-regulated after rats received chronic morphine treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Results of our experiments showed that Bacillus mega

CONCLUSIONS: Results of our experiments showed that Bacillus megaterium was able to produce P(3HB) at one of the highest production rates so far reported for this bacterium, making this microorganism very interesting for industrial applications. Comparisons of shaker and bench-scale bioreactor experiments show both the importance of pH and aeration strategies. It is likely that complex aeration strategies linked to cell metabolism will be necessary for further developments using this bacterium. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Purpose of reviewThe

purpose of this review is to highlight some of the advances in the way we think about rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Recent outcome and biological analyses have shifted the risk stratification and HDAC inhibitor treatment paradigms for pediatric RMS.Recent findingsThe presence or absence of the FOXO1 translocation is one of the most important prognostic factors in RMS. Future clinical studies will incorporate FOXO1 translocation status within risk stratification criteria. Molecular analyses have identified

RAS/NF1, hedgehog, IL-4R, and ALK pathway abnormalities as potential therapeutic targets in RMS. Reductions in systemic therapy are possible, although radiation therapy remains essential to prevent local failures in most patients.SummaryAlthough survival for RMS has not improved MLN4924 in vivo in recent years, refinement in risk stratification, further understanding of the biological drivers of the disease, and modifications in treatment intensity have set the stage for the next generation of studies in RMS.”
“BACKGROUD: Direct oxidation of alkylaromatics to the corresponding aromatic ketone is an important process in the manufacture of perfumes, pharmaceuticals, flavors, dyes and agrochemicals. For example,

tetralin is oxidized to produce 1-tetralinone, which is a key intermediate in the commercial production of 1-naphthol, 2-hydroxy-1-tetralone, aureolic acid antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals.

RESULTS: In this investigation, it was found that alkylaromatics could be efficiently and selectively oxidized to the Buparlisib clinical trial corresponding aromatic ketones when methyl violet was employed as a promotor in the presence of N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI); tetralin was oxidized with 89% conversion and 76% selectivity to 1-tetralinone under 0.3 MPa Of O(2) at 75 degrees C for 2.5 h. The effects of temperature, oxygen pressure, reaction time and additive inclusion were studied in detail. A possible reaction mechanism for tetralin oxidation has been proposed.

CONCLUSION: It was demonstrated that methyl violet could efficiently promote the aerobic oxidation of alkylaromatics in the presence of NHPI under mild conditions. Further investigations indicated that the nitrogen cation had a crucial promotion effect in the oxidation process.

The objective of this study was to compare different tools used t

The objective of this study was to compare different tools used to assess the nutritional status of patients waiting for a liver transplant. Patients were nutritionally assessed by SGA, anthropometry, handgrip dynamometry and biochemical tests. Clinical variables were cross analyzed with the nutritional

assessment methods. There were 159 patients followed. Malnutrition ranged from 6.3% to 80.8% according to the different methods used. Agreement among all the methods was low (K < 0.26). Malnutrition prevalence according to different nutritional assessment tools did not differ among this group of patients in relation to the etiology of liver disease (p > 0.05) but increased with the more advanced stages of disease according to the Child-Pugh score. Only SGA showed significant relationships

with clinical variables (Child-Pugh scores, p Selleckchem AG 14699 < 0.05; presence of ascites and/or edema, p < 0.01; and encephalopathy, p < 0.01). The various methods used showed great variability of results, lack agreement among them, and only SGA showed correlation with the progression of liver disease.”
“Epitaxial growth of Ba0.6Sr0.4Ti1-xZrxO3 (0 <= x <= 0.3) composition spread thin film library on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 layer by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is reported. X-ray diffraction and Ricolinostat manufacturer energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy studies showed an accurate control of the film phase and composition by combinatorial PLD. A complex evolution of the microstructure and morphology with composition of the library is described, resulting from the interplay between epitaxial stress, increased chemical pressure, and reduced elastic energy upon Zr doping. Statistical and temperature-related capacitive measurements across the library showed unexpected variations in the dielectric properties. Doping windows with enhanced permittivity and tunability are identified, and correlated to

microstructural properties. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3514153]“
“Evolutionary developmental biology is based on the principle that evolution arises from hereditable changes in development. Most of this new work has centred on changes in the regulatory components of the genome. However, recent studies (many of them documented in Salubrinal this volume) have shown that development also includes interactions between the organism and its environment. One area of interest concerns the importance of symbionts for the production of the normal range of phenotypes. Many, if not most, organisms have ‘outsourced’ some of their developmental signals to a set of symbionts that are expected to be acquired during development. Such intimate interactions between species are referred to as codevelopment, the production of a new individual through the coordinated interactions of several genotypically different species.

Increasing age at menarche was also associated with predominant r

Increasing age at menarche was also associated with predominant resting tremor at PD onset. In models refitted on patients with early PD (disease duration <5 years; N = 226) all the associations found were confirmed. The relationship between surrogates of estrogen exposure and UPDRS motor

score actually became more significant.

Conclusions: Our observations support the concept that hormonal exposure of the nigro-striatal network during life may influence its susceptibility to degenerative stimuli in later life, but selleck screening library the association does not seem to be unique? unidirectional. In particular, increased severity of PD signs correlates with shorter duration of estrogen exposure. The underlying mechanisms need to be clarified. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

“Resveratrol, a compound commonly found in red wine, has attracted many attentions recently. It is a diphenolic natural product accumulated in grapes and a few other species under stress conditions. It possesses a special ability to increase the life span of eukaryotic organisms, ranging from yeast, to fruit fly, to obese mouse. The demand for resveratrol as a food and nutrition supplement has increased significantly in recent years. Extensive work has Copanlisib cell line been carried out to increase the production of resveratrol in plants and microbes. In this review, we will discuss the biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol and engineering methods to heterologously express the pathway in various organisms. We will outline the shortcuts and limitations of common engineering efforts. We will also discuss briefly the features and engineering challenges of other longevity boosting compounds.”
“Apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) was originally considered to induce apoptosis in yeast through a partially caspase-dependent pathway. In our research work, we demonstrated that aif1p could also inhibit fluconazole resistance in yeast. Several ABC transporters such as PDR5, PDR10 and HXT11 were upregulated in an aif1 mutant. A rhodamine 6 G (R6G) efflux study demonstrated increased extrusion of R6G through efflux pumps in the aif1 mutant. Therefore,

SB525334 datasheet we concluded that aif1p may inhibit the development of FLC resistance in yeast via some ABC transporters induction.”
“Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common idiopathic intraoral ulcerative disease in the USA. Aphthae typically occur in apparently healthy individuals, although an association with certain systemic diseases has been reported. Despite the unclear etiopathogenesis, new drug trials are continuously conducted in an attempt to reduce pain and dysfunction. We investigated four controversial topics: (1) Is complex aphthosis a mild form of Behcet’s disease (BD)? (2) Is periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome a distinct medical entity? (3) Is RAS associated with other systemic diseases [e. g.

The IC50 values of cyanidin-3-rutinoside against intestinal malta

The IC50 values of cyanidin-3-rutinoside against intestinal maltase, and sucrase

were 2,323 +/- 14.8 and 250.2 +/- 8.1 mu M, respectively. The kinetic analysis revealed that intestinal sucrase was inhibited by cyanidin-3-rutinoside LY2090314 supplier in a mixed-type manner. The synergistic inhibition also found in combination of cyanidin-3-rutinoside with acarbose against intestinal maltase and sucrase. The oral administration of cyanidin-3-rutinoside (100 and 300 mg/kg) plus maltose or sucrose to normal rats, postprandial plasma glucose was markedly suppressed at 30-90 min after loading. Furthermore, the normal rats treated with acarbose and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (30 mg/kg) showed greater reduction of postprandial plasma glucose than the group treated with acarbose alone. These results suggest that cyanidin-3-rutinoside retards absorption of carbohydrates by inhibition of a-glucosidase which may be useful as a potential inhibitor for prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus.”
“Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (CCP-AB) are used for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is still unknown if the extent of CCP-AB levels is useful to assess the disease activity or the individual

follow-up as an individual activity parameter. We investigated 40 patients with a known RA who were positive for CCP-AB. Correlation between disease activity (DAS 28) and the amount of levels of CCP-AB in all patients over time as well as the individual follow-up were analysed. A weak correlation between CCP-AB and DAS 28 [r=0.19; p=0.001] was found. The individual Small molecule library correlation between CCP-AB titre and DAS 28 ranged between r=-1 and r=1, so a strong positive and also a strong negative correlation was seen in single patients. In patients with erosive RA the

correlation was significantly more positive than in patients with non-erosive RA. Because the correlation between CCP-AB levels and parameters of disease activity measured by DAS 28 is very low, we conclude for monitoring the disease activity to use simply and established parameters like morning stiffness, HAQ or ESR. The individual follow-up of the levels of CCP-AB is by the moment not useful for monitoring the disease activity.”
“Several analyses of hollow fiber reverse osmosis (RO) modules in ACY-738 clinical trial which permeate water flows from the outer to the inner side of the membrane have been attempted over the past 20 years. In our previous work, an FCP (Friction Concentration Polarization) model showed good agreement with a wide range of actual performance data of a hollow fiber RO membrane module of radial flow type. In this work, this analytical model was applied to axial flow type hollow fiber modules. The performance of the axial flow type module with high packing density of hollow fibers was analyzed, taking into consideration the axial concentration profile in the module.

However, recurrences are possible after early treatment interrupt

However, recurrences are possible after early treatment interruption. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We encapsulated recombinant human

epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) into nano-liposomes (NLs) system for topical delivery. The rhEGF-loaded NLs were prepared using a high pressure homogenization method. Morphology and overall particle CH5183284 cost distribution of NLs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution microscope (CytoViva (TM)). Particle size, zeta (zeta) potential and encapsulation efficiency were measured and the percutaneous delivery of NLs was evaluated using Franz diffusion cells and immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The mean particle size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency of the NLs

were 155.57 +/- 2.59 nm, -57.92 +/- 4.35mV and 9.00 +/- 0.39%, respectively. TEM and microscopic analysis showed spherical, very even-sized vesicles approximately 150 nm. The skin permeation and localization of rhEGF were enhanced by NLs. CLSM image analysis provided that the NLs enhanced the permeation and localization of rhEGF in rat skin by facilitating entry through pores of skin.”
“Three-dimensional impedance maps (3DZMs) are virtual volumes of acoustic impedance values constructed from histology to represent tissue microstructure acoustically. From the 3DZM, the ultrasonic backscattered power spectrum can be predicted and HIF-1 activation model based scatterer properties, such as effective scatterer diameter (ESD), can be estimated. Additionally, the 3DZM can be exploited to visualize and identify possible scattering sites, which may aid in the development of more effective scattering models to better represent the ultrasonic interaction with underlying tissue microstructure. In this study, 3DZMs were created from a set of human fibroadenoma samples. ESD estimates were made assuming a fluid-filled sphere form factor model from 3DZMs of volume 300 x 300 x 300 mu m. For a collection of 33 independent human fibroadenoma

tissue samples, the ESD SB525334 clinical trial was estimated to be 111 +/- 40.7 mu m. The 3DZMs were then investigated visually to identify possible scattering sources which conformed to the estimated model scatterer dimensions. This estimation technique allowed a better understanding of the spatial distribution and variability of the estimates throughout the volume.”
“The use of recombinant human proteins for the treatment of several diseases has increased considerably during the last decades. A major safety and efficacy issue of biopharmaceuticals is their potential immunogenicity. To prevent immunogenicity, biotechnology-derived proteins are engineered to be as human-like as possible. Immunogenicity is mainly determined in non-human primates (NHP), as they are considered to be the best predictive animal species for human safety, based on their close relatedness to man.

“Inherited peripheral neuropathies are among the most comm

“Inherited peripheral neuropathies are among the most common hereditary diseases of the nervous system. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, also known from previous classifications as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is certainly the most

common inherited neuropathy. In the past several years, various treatments for CMT have been proposed, although specific therapies CBL0137 cell line are not yet available. In clinical practice, rehabilitative strategies remain the most helpful therapeutic approach to these patients. There is still a lack of consensus on the best way to rehabilitate patients affected by CMT. Based on our personal experience and on a review of the literature, we first recommend the prescription of ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) for patients affected by CMT; the choice of which patient, which AFO, and when to apply it depends on the individual condition of each patient and on the experience of the physician/therapist. Second, adaptive equipment (eg, button hook, long-handled shoehorn, elastic shoe laces) is available to compensate for hand deformities, sensory loss, and weakness. Third, moderate to intense strength training and aerobic exercise are well tolerated

by patients affected by CMT; further studies are needed to establish whether these approaches are effective in improving their motor function and strength. There is not enough evidence to recommend muscle stretching exercises or proprioceptive kinesiotherapy, although in our

experience both approaches may be helpful EX 527 datasheet in selected CMT patients to prevent tendon retractions, muscle tightening, and loss of strength, and to improve balance. There is growing knowledge of the underlying genetic defects and molecular pathophysiology in CMT. To date, only a few clinical trials in CMT patients have been performed. A neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin 3, was used in a small sample of CMT1A patients with promising results, but it has not been tested in a larger cohort and there is currently no reason to suggest this therapy for CMT1A neuropathy. Based on positive results in an animal model of CMT1A, three trials with ascorbic acid (AA) were completed in a large number of patients with this neuropathy, with results that were negative overall. Therefore, it is not possible to recommend the use of AA in CMT1A Luminespib cell line patients at this time, but the results of a larger Italian-UK study and an American trial with higher doses of AA are still awaited. It is important to remember that a superimposed inflammatory/disimmune process may complicate the course of the neuropathy; in this case, severe worsening (especially motor) in a matter of weeks or months is a “”red flag”" that should suggest immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory treatment such as steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, or plasma exchange. In fact, steroid-sensitive cases of HMSN were described many years ago, well before the genetic diagnosis was available.

Conclusion Physicians should be aware of the risk factors and cli

Conclusion Physicians should be aware of the risk factors and clinical presentation of penile malignancies because early diagnosis is essential in effective BVD-523 cost management and cure. Accurate staging is imperative for risk stratification and treatment planning. Depending on the type of tumor, size of tumor, location, staging, and grading, treatment modalities vary and may include topical chemotherapy, surgical excision, Mohs micrographic surgery, laser excision or ablation, systemic chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.”
“In plants RNA silencing

is a host defense mechanism against viral infection, in which double-strand RNA is processed into 21-24-nt short interfering RNA (siRNA). Silencing spreads from cell to cell and systemically through a sequence-specific signal to limit the propagation of the virus. To counteract this defense mechanism, viruses encode suppressors of silencing. The P1 protein encoded by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) displays suppression activity with variable efficiency, according to the isolates that they originated from. Here, we show that P1 proteins from two RYMV

isolates displaying contrasting suppression strength reduced local silencing induced by single-strand and double-strand RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. This suppression was associated with a slight and a severe reduction in 21- and 24-nt siRNA accumulation, respectively. Unexpectedly, cell-to-cell movement and systemic propagation of silencing were enhanced in P1-expressing Nicotiana plants. When transgenically expressed in rice, Selleck MK-8931 P1 proteins induced specific deregulation of DCL4-dependent endogenous siRNA pathways, whereas the other endogenous pathways were not affected. As DCL4-dependent pathways play a key role in rice development, the expression of P1 viral proteins was associated with the same severe developmental defects in spikelets as in dcl4 mutants. Overall, our results demonstrate that a single viral protein displays multiple effects on both endogenous and exogenous silencing, not only in a suppressive but also in an enhancive

manner. This suggests that P1 proteins play a key role in maintaining https://www.selleckchem.com/PD-1-PD-L1.html a subtle equilibrium between defense and counter-defense mechanisms, to insure efficient virus multiplication and the preservation of host integrity.”
“Cytological preparations for the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique require cytoplasm-free metaphases, with well-spread chromosomes, for the localization of DNA sequences and chromosome mapping. We tested various procedures for FISH analysis of Passiflora cacaoensis, P. gardneri and hybrid F(1) progeny of P. gardneri x P. gibertii. Two treatments with four enzymes and three incubation times were compared. The material was treated with 1.0 M HCl before enzymatic digestion.

“The effect of the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the m

“The effect of the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the modulation of cells related to inflammatory processes has been widely studied, with different parameters. The objective was to investigate the immediate and cumulative effect of infrared LLLT on chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) modulation in mice. Fifty-two isogenic mice were distributed in seven groups: control (n = 10, no surgical procedure), laser I (n = 7, surgical procedure and a single

LLLT exposure 12 h after the surgery), laser II (n = 7, surgery followed by two LLLT exposures, 12 and 36 h after surgery), and laser III (n = 7, surgery followed by three LLLT exposures, 12, Selleckchem Doramapimod 36, and 60 h after surgery). For each group, a sham group (n = 21) underwent surgery without laser application. The animals in the laser groups received an infrared diode continuous laser exposure

(AsGaAl, 780 nm wavelength, power of 20 mW, energy density of 10 J/cm(2), spot size of 0,04 cm(2)) on three points (20 s per point), and a final energy of 0.4 J. The animals were sacrificed 36 h (laser I and sham I groups), 60 h (laser II and sham II), and 84 h (laser III and sham III groups) after surgery. The MCP-1 concentrations were measured by cytometric bead array. There was no significant difference between the three periods in the sham group (p = 0.3). There was a lower concentration of MCP-1 in the laser III group compared to the laser I group (p = 0.05). The infrared LLLT showed a cumulative effect in the modulation selleck products of chemokine MCP-1 concentration. Three LLLT exposures were necessary to achieve

the MCP-1 modulation.”
“Background-The benefits of medication adherence to control cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well defined, yet multiple studies have identified poor adherence. The influence of life chaos on medication adherence is unknown. Because this is a novel application of an instrument, our preliminary objective was to understand patient factors associated with chaos. The main objective was to evaluate the extent to which an instrument designed to measure life chaos is associated with CVD-medication nonadherence.

Methods and Results-Using baseline data from an ongoing randomized PI3K inhibitor trial to improve postmyocardial infarction (MI) management, multivariable logistic regression identified the association between life chaos and CVD-medication nonadherence. Patients had hypertension and a myocardial infarction in the past 3 years (n=406). Nearly 43% reported CVD-medication nonadherence in the past month. In simple linear regression, the following were associated with higher life chaos: medication nonadherence (beta=1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-2.76), female sex (beta=1.22; 95% CI [0.22-2.24]), minority race (beta=1.72; 95% CI [0.78-2.66]), having less than high school education (beta=2.05; 95% CI [0.71-3.