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system lymphoma (PCNSL) is defined as a non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) confined to the cranio-spinal axis without systemic involvement. It occurs more frequently in patients with both congenital and acquired immunodeficiency. In HIV it is generally seen in patients with severe and prolonged immunosuppression. It can affect any part of the brain, leptomeninges, cranial nerves, eyes or spinal cord . AIDS-related PCNSL occurs with a similar distribution across transmission risk groups and all ages, and is characteristically high-grade diffuse large B-cell or immunoblastic NHL . Shortly after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a decline in the incidence of PCNSL was recognized and a meta-analysis of 48 000 individuals confirmed this significant decrease (relative risk 0.42, 99% CI: 0.24–0.75) .