Conclusion  Undergraduate pharmacy students in our College of Pha

Conclusion  Undergraduate pharmacy students in our College of Pharmacy expressed favourable attitudes towards public health roles of pharmacists. Early enthusiasm for participation

in public health activities is valuable for building communication skills, promoting leadership and potentially influencing practising pharmacists. “
“Objective  Registered pharmacy technicians are a new group of regulated healthcare professionals in Great Britain, who fall under the same requirements for undertaking and recording of continuing professional development (CPD) Osimertinib datasheet as pharmacists. Little is known about this group of pharmacy professionals, their understanding of CPD

and learning, or how they implement their learning into practice. This study aimed to address this. Methods  A questionnaire was developed and sent to all 216 attendees of an interactive continuing education workshop provided in 12 different geographical locations in England. check details Key findings  Over a third (n = 146; 67.6%) responded. The majority (94.5%) were female, aged between 40 and 49 years (43.8%), and had qualified less than 10 years ago (49.4%). Most worked in community (56.2%) or hospital (19.9%) pharmacy. When asked about whether they had implemented any of the workshop learning into practice, 84.2% ticked at least one option from a predetermined list, and 83.6% provided detailed descriptions of a situation, what they did and its outcome. These were grouped into two themes: people and places. Places referred to comments made about changes to systems, operations or equipment within the workplace; people concerned changes within respondents themselves or others, such as staff or customers.

More than two-thirds (70.3%) had used their learning to create a CPD record, and those who had not (n = 43) gave lack MTMR9 of time but also lack of understanding as reasons. Conclusions  This study has provided detailed insights into pharmacy technicians’ learning, reflection and practice implementation following an interactive workshop. “
“To explore the attitudes of Australian hospital pharmacists towards patient safety in their work settings. A safety climate questionnaire was administered to all 2347 active members of the Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia in 2010. Part of the survey elicited free-text comments about patient safety, error and incident reporting. The comments were subjected to thematic analysis to determine the attitudes held by respondents in relation to patient safety and its quality management in their work settings. Two hundred and ten (210) of 643 survey respondents provided comments on safety and quality issues related to their work settings.

A cell density-dependent lag period was observed before swarming

A cell density-dependent lag period was observed before swarming motility was ACP-196 initiated. Surface migration began 3–5 days after inoculation and a full swarming phenotype was observed 3 weeks after inoculation. The swarming front was

preceded by a clear extracellular matrix, from which we failed to detect surfactants. The edge of the swarming front formed by VF39SM was characterized by hyperflagellated cells arranged in rafts, whereas the cells at the point of inoculation were indistinguishable from vegetative cells. Swarmer cells formed by 3841, in contrast, showed a minor increase in flagellation, with each swarmer cell exhibiting an average of three flagellar filaments, compared with an average of two flagella per vegetative cell. Reflective of their hyperflagellation, the VF39SM swarmer cells selleck kinase inhibitor demonstrated an increased expression

of flagellar genes. VF39SM swarmed better than 3841 under all the conditions tested, and the additional flagellation in VF39SM swarm cells may contribute to this difference. Metabolism of the supplemented carbon source appeared to be necessary for surface migration as strains incapable of utilizing the carbon source failed to swarm. We also observed that swarmer cells have increased resistance to several antibiotics. Swarming motility refers to the coordinated movement of groups of bacterial cells on semi-solid surfaces (Fraser & Hughes, 1999; Braeken et al., 2008; Verstraeten et al., 2008), and often involves the differentiation of vegetative cells into hyperflagellated swarmer cells (Fraser & Hughes, 1999). The differentiated swarmer cells are organized parallel to their long axis in the form of rafts that rapidly colonize the entire surface of an agar medium (Harshey, 1994; Daniels et al., 2004). The rapid outward migration of the swarmer cells at the edge of the swarming colonies is accompanied by bacterial growth inside the colony (Sharma & Anand, 2003). The swarm front is preceded by a clear layer of slime-like extracellular material that also confers a glistening effect on

the swarming colonies (Harshey, 1994; Fraser & Hughes, 1999; Daniels et al., 2004; Julkowska et al., 2004). Fludarabine This extracellular matrix, which serves as a hydrated environment for the swarmer cells, consists of polysaccharides, biosurfactants, peptides, and proteins (Verstraeten et al., 2008). Swarming has been well studied in Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and in some species of Bacillus and Clostridium (Sharma & Anand, 2003). At present, swarming has been demonstrated in a wide range of bacteria including members of Vibrio, Serratia, Chromobacterium, Escherichia, Salmonella, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, Yersinia, Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium, and Agrobacterium (Hall & Krieg, 1983; Harshey & Matsuyama, 1994; Kohler et al., 2000; Soto et al., 2002; Sharma & Anand, 2003; Kim & Surette, 2005; Daniels et al., 2006; Sule et al., 2009).

3B and C) These effects were also observed after application of

3B and C). These effects were also observed after application of guanfacine. When guanfacine was washed out from the medium, the

speed of interneuron migration significantly increased and gradually reached control values (P < 0.01 at the first time interval after the drug wash when comparing guanfacine vs. no-wash medetomidine, one-way anova, Tukey’s multiple comparison test; Fig. 3C). Interestingly, we observed that although the migratory speed of GAD65-GFP+ cells was gradually restored during the removal of either medetomidine or guanfacine, the directionality of GAD65-GFP+ cells was modified by adra2 stimulation (Fig. 3B). Quantification revealed that during Selleckchem Cetuximab the washout period a significant proportion of GAD65-GFP+ cells modified their directionality following medetomidine or guanfacine application. The percentage of GAD65-GFP+ interneurons that made directionality changes in the range > 120–180° after the medetomidine wash or the guafancine wash was significantly increased compared to control GAD65-GFP+ interneurons (P < 0.01 for guanfacine compared to control click here and P < 0.05 for medetomidine vs. control, one-way anova Tukey’s multiple comparison

test; Fig. 3D), suggesting that adrenergic stimulation of cortical interneurons may alter their responsiveness to guidance cues. To determine whether cortical interneuron migration is altered in adra2a/2c-ko mice, we analysed the cortical distribution of GAD65-GFP+ interneurons before at postnatal day 21 in GAD65-GFP mice and in adra2a/2c-ko GAD65-GFP mice. Quantification revealed that the distribution of GAD65-GFP+ cortical interneurons in the somatosensory cortex was significantly altered in adra2a/2c-ko mice (n = 6) compared to the

control mice (n = 6; P < 0.05, χ2 test; Fig. 4). A significant increase in the percentage of GAD65-GFP+ cells was observed in upper cortical layers II/III in adra2a/2c-ko mice (P < 0.05, unpaired t-test), indicating that adrenergic receptors are necessary for the proper positioning of cortical interneurons in vivo. Quantification of the distribution of GAD65-GFP+ cells at P21 in the somatosensory cortex of adra2a-ko or of adra2c-ko mice was not significantly different from control GAD65-GFP+ mice (data not shown), suggesting that constitutive deletion of adra2a or adra2c during development may be compensated for by the presence of the other subtype. In this study we found that migrating cortical interneuron subtypes preferentially derived from the caudal ganglionic eminences express a specific pattern of adrenergic receptors and that pharmacological activation of these receptors affects the dynamic migration of cortical interneurons as they invade the developing cortical plate. Effects of adrenergic stimulation were most effective after adra2 stimulation, and they were concentration-dependent and reversible. Furthermore, effects of adra2 activation on the migration of cortical interneurons were significantly reduced in adra2a/2c-ko mice.

Tests that are simple, reliable, reproducible, sensitive

Tests that are simple, reliable, reproducible, sensitive

and cost effective will become necessary with advancing instrumentation. We have described a CE-based method for differentiating Cryptosporidium species from within and between host groups. Genetic variation for other ABT-263 mouse parasitic species has been investigated using SSCP (Gasser & Chilton, 2001; Hutson et al., 2004; Mahnaz et al., 2006; Lin et al., 2007), suggesting that CE would also be useful for other parasites. We are currently assessing CE-SSCP for use with different Cryptosporidium loci and as a tool for assessing the biodiversity of this genus. Applications of this rapid method to detection, population genetics and identification will increase our understanding of the evolution and diversity of this important parasitic group. Funding for this research was provided through the Macquarie University Research Fellow Scheme and an Australian Research Council Linkage grant in collaboration with NSW Health. “
“Pregnant mothers are susceptible to bacterial infections,

which may compromise the health of mothers and offspring. Enterococcus faecalis is a ubiquitous species found in food, restaurants, and hospitals where pregnant woman frequently become exposed to this bacterium. However, the survival, distribution, translocation, and corresponding influence of E. faecalis have not been investigated during the pregnancy period, when the mother and fetus are susceptible to bacterial learn more infection. In this study, a fluorescing E. faecalis strain was used to track the fate of the bacterium in pregnant mice. Orally administered E. faecalis were found to survive and disseminate to all regions of the intestinal

tract. It also altered the bacterial community structure by significantly decreasing Decitabine cell line the diversity of Lactobacillus species, impairing the normal structure and function of the intestinal barrier, which may contribute to the bacterial translocation into the blood, spleen, placenta, and fetus. This may affect fetal and placental growth and development. “
“Predation rates were measured for two Acanthamoeba castellanii strains feeding on metal-tolerant and metal-sensitive strains of Pseudomonas putida and compared with cellular thermodynamic data. Predation rates by A. castellanii strain ATCC 30010 correlated with cell volume of the prey. To explore whether this observation could be environmentally relevant, pseudomonad species were isolated from a pristine and a metal-contaminated river and were paired based on phylogenetic and physiological relatedness. Then, cellular thermodynamics and predation rates were measured on the most similar pseudomonad pair. Under cadmium stress, the strain from contaminated river sediments, Pseudomonas sp. CF150, exited metabolic dormancy faster than its pair from pristine sediments, Pseudomonas sp. N9, but consumed available resources less efficiently (more energy was lost as heat).

This alkane-induced protein would thus be a prime candidate poten

This alkane-induced protein would thus be a prime candidate potentially mediating alkane transport. Using a transcriptomics approach, a number of additional alkane-induced regulatory systems have been detected (Table 1), as compared with our previous proteomics study (Sabirova et al., 2006). A transcriptional regulator of the GntR family, find more encoded by ABO_0121, is located next to the ABO_0122 encoding the alkB2 monooxygenase, suggesting that the ABO_0121-encoded gene product might regulate the expression of the adjacent monooxygenase. Another regulatory system consisting of ABO_1708 and

ABO_1709, adjacent to each other and likely to be operon-arranged, encodes a pair of sensor histidine kinase and DNA-binding response regulator that are also upregulated on alkanes. Their close proximity to the gene of fatty acid degradation (fadH dienoyl-CoA reductase) may indicate that this regulatory system controls the oxidation of fatty acids in Alcanivorax. Our transcriptome data also hint towards quorum sensing playing a role in biofilm formation of Alcanivorax on alkanes, as the major transcriptional

regulator QseB encoded by ABO_0031 was found to be upregulated on hexadecane (Table 1). Quorum sensing has indeed been reported to trigger biofilm formation via the biosynthesis of extracellular exopolysaccharides (EPS) (Sauer et al., 2002), also visible on our EM pictures. We did not detect increased expression

of the cognate histidine kinase, QseC, encoded by ABO_0030. This finding indicates that for initial signal reception and transduction constant levels of sensor this website protein suffice, while the subsequent coordinated regulation of the expanded quorum-sensing regulon qse does require increased titers of Qse regulator protein. Finally, an HD-GYP domain protein encoded by ABO_2132 and mentioned earlier in ‘Alkane-induced biofilm formation and adhesion to hydrocarbons’ is also upregulated on alkanes and hence represents Histone demethylase another worthy target for regulatory studies of growth on alkanes. To conclude, our transcriptomics analysis of A. borkumensis responses to alkane exposure adds a complementary view on alkane metabolism by this bacterium, in addition to our previous proteomics study, and reveals a number of novel observations, for instance concerning the molecular mechanisms of alkane transport across the cytoplasmic membrane, and pointing to a diverse set of enzymes for the degradation of alkanes. Alcanivorax SK2 seems to respond to growth on alkanes by forming cell aggregates, probably supported by enhanced synthesis of EPS and probably following in a quorum-sensing-mediated aggregation process. Finally, the study has also revealed many transcriptional regulators to be differentially expressed, indicating a complex regulatory interplay of alkane degradation with other metabolic functions in this marine organism.

5 Hz) Total power was computed relative to a baseline interval (

5 Hz). Total power was computed relative to a baseline interval (−1.6 to −1.2 s before electrical stimulus onset). Average power in the baseline interval was first subtracted from the interval after clip onset and before electrical stimulus onset (prestimulus interval; −1 to 0 s) and the resulting difference was divided by the baseline interval activity as follows: Pow(t, f )normalised = 100 * ((Pow(t, f )prestimulus − Pow( f )baseline)/Pow( f )baseline) (e.g. Pfurtscheller & Aranibar, 1977). For the statistical analysis, a cluster-based permutation test was applied on electrode–time–frequency

data (Maris & Oostenveld, 2007; Schneider et al., 2011). The dependent samples t-tests were thresholded at P = 0.005 and the permutation P-value of the cluster was set to P = 0.05. For the source reconstruction, a linear beamforming approach was applied (dynamic imaging of coherent sources; Van Veen et al., 1997; Gross

et al., 2001). In this approach, APO866 purchase source-level power is calculated using an adaptive spatial filter that passes activity from one specific location of interest with unit gain and maximally suppresses activity from surrounding locations. In the present study, one common filter was used, comprising all conditions (i.e. needle and Q-tip) as well as all time intervals (i.e. baseline and prestimulus). As linear beamforming is based on the calculation of the cross-spectral density matrix over trials, this approach is particularly suitable for the analysis of total power in the human electroencephalogram (Schneider

et al., 2008, 2011). The leadfield selleck screening library matrix was calculated on a boundary element model for each grid point in the brain with a regular 7 mm grid using a forward model based on closed compartments representing brain tissue (gray and white matter), bone, and skin (Oostenveld et al., 2001). A spatial filter was constructed for each grid point and subsequently applied to estimate the power at that source location. In accordance with previous studies on pain anticipation (Babiloni et al., 2005a, 2006) and with the activity patterns observed in the present study, the main focus of the statistical analysis of oscillatory responses was on the examination of ABA (8–12 Hz). The time interval for the source analysis was selected based Linifanib (ABT-869) on the results of the cluster-based permutation test on electrode–time–frequency data (Fig. 3) and was centered at −0.5 s (interval −0.7 to −0.3 s) before electrical stimulus onset; the respective baseline was centered at −1.4 s (interval −1.6 to −1.2 s). Source data were analysed voxel-wise by means of a cluster-based permutation test. The dependent samples t-tests for this analysis were thresholded at P = 0.0001 and the permutation P-value of the cluster was set to P = 0.05. Based on the results obtained in the cluster-based analysis of source data (Fig. 5), a region in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) was selected for further analysis.

The staff interviews suggest that successful implementation of th

The staff interviews suggest that successful implementation of the HLP programme is dependent upon achieving the right skill mix including the introduction of healthy living champions to ensure staff are better equipped to approach and engage with clients on health related issues. The HLP process allowed staff to grow within and into roles, enhancing job satisfaction and motivation. Staff value the HLP model towards achieving a more proactive, supported and effective approach to service provision. buy Rucaparib Staff also identify key aspects of the process that need to be managed and addressed to ensure the outweighing benefits of the programme

are sustained and translate to better health outcomes amongst the local community. A limitation to the study was that due to time constraints it was not possible to interview multiple staff at each location; in some cases, only the pharmacist could participate and in other pharmacies only a non-pharmacist member of staff could be interviewed. This therefore assumed that the member of staff interviewed, represented the opinions of

the entire team. 1. Department of Health. Pharmacy in England: Pexidartinib in vivo building on strengths – delivering the future. London: Department of Health 2008. Available at: (Accessed April 14, 2013). 2. NHS Portsmouth. Interim report on the outcomes from the Portsmouth Health Living Pharmacy initiative. September 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase 2010. Available at: (Accessed April 14, 2013) Scott Cunningham, Khyati Sanghani, Alison Strath Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK Survey of Scottish community pharmacists’ views and experiences of the Chronic Medication Service (CMS) and Pharmacy Care Record

(PCR) CMS and PCR are well supported but may require technological enhancement and they are not yet part of daily practice. Pharmacists perceive that GPs lack awareness and understanding of CMS. Practice developments require greater CMS-PCR integration into daily work streams and initiatives that promote collaborative working with GPs. A Chronic Medication Service (CMS) in Scottish community pharmacy practice has been developed.1 CMS was introduced in 2010 and is designed to offer personalised pharmaceutical care. The Pharmacy Care Record (PCR), a web based system, facilitates CMS. The aim of the research was to survey the views and experiences of community pharmacists to CMS and PCR. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 1091 CPs in Scotland with one reminder. It was developed and piloted by an expert team with broad experience of practice and research. Data from earlier unpublished qualitative work was used to inform survey development. Open, closed and Likert-type questions were included. Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS 17.0.

5% Tween 60 solution (Leslie & Summerell, 2006) For outcrosses,

5% Tween 60 solution (Leslie & Summerell, 2006). For outcrosses, the heterothallic female strains were fertilized with 1 mL of a conidial suspension (106 conidia mL−1) from male strains as previously described (Lee et al., 2003). All of the cultures were incubated under near UV light (wavelength: 365 nm) at 25 °C. For trichothecene (deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol) analysis, the conidial suspension was inoculated in defined media containing 5 mM of agmatine (MMA) as previously described (Gardiner et al., 2009). Culture filtrates were extracted with ethyl acetate/methanol mixture (4 : 1, selleckchem v/v) (He et al., 2007). The resulting trichothecenes were analyzed with a Shimadzu

QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS; Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) as previously described (Seo et al., 1996). To analyze zearalenone, mycelia of wild-type and transgenic strains that were grown in CM for 3 days, were subcultured into starch glutamate (SG) media and incubated for 7 days (Bacon et al., 1977). Culture filtrates were extracted and analyzed with a Shimadzu LC-6A HPLC as previously described (Kim et al., 2005a,b). The transcript level of TRI6 and ZEB2 gene was analyzed by quantitative

real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) as previously described (Lin et al., 2011). Briefly, total RNA was extracted from cultures in defined media containing 5 mM of agmatine at 4 days after inoculation (DAI) and in SG media at 7 DAI. The first strand cDNA was synthesized and qRT-PCR was performed. The selleck compound transcript level of TRI6 in MMA and ZEB2 in SG media was quantified with appropriate primer pairs (Table S1). The housekeeping gene CYP1 (Broad Institute ID: FGSG_07439.3) was used

as an endogenous control for normalization. PCR was repeated three times with three biological replicates per run. To observe GFP and red fluorescent protein (RFP), mycelia were collected by centrifugation and fixed with paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline (4% w/v) (Seong et al., 2008). Meiotic chromosomes were stained with acriflavin as previously described (Raju, 1986). The perithecia were dissected in one drop of 20% glycerol on a microscope glass slide Calpain and the rosettes of asci were gently flattened under the coverglass (Min et al., 2010). An Axio Imager 1 microscope (Carl Zeiss, Germany) was used for differential interference contrast and fluorescence observation (GFP excitation 470/40, emission 525/50; RFP excitation 546/12, emission 590). Nuclei stained with acriflavin were visualized with a GFP filter set. A blast search of the genomic sequence from G. zeae indicated that the fungus contains one copy of AreA homologue coding gene (areA, Broad Institute ID: FGSG_08634.3) with 85% sequence identity to the AREA-GF of G. fujikuroi (Tudzynski et al., 1999). The most conserved region of AreA homologues is a GATA-type zinc finger DNA binding domain. We employed a targeted gene deletion strategy to determine the roles of areA in G. zeae.

Other studies have also shown 800 mg to be effective and safe [71

Other studies have also shown 800 mg to be effective and safe [71,74]. In contrast, other BAY 80-6946 order data support using standard-dose efavirenz. In some cohort studies (in which most participants had a low body weight), 600 mg efavirenz has been given with rifampicin without lower drug exposure or compromised clinical efficacy [75,76]. In one study, efavirenz levels were not predicted by weight or gender and were not associated with HIV clinical outcomes, even though half the cohort had concentrations below the expected therapeutic range (1000–4000 ng/mL). This, as well as other studies, confirms the large interpatient variability in efavirenz levels

[77]. In one study of Black South Africans taking rifampicin, no difference was seen in mid-dose efavirenz levels between patients on efavirenz 800 mg (n=31)

and those on efavirenz 600 mg (n=29) [78]. This finding may be the result of a high frequency of polymorphisms in CYP450 2B6, which occur with a rate of 20% in the Black population compared with 3% in the White population [79,80]. The frequency of polymorphisms in CYP2B6 may also explain high rates of clinical toxicity in some studies [81]. Recommendation [AII]: Patient under 60 kg: Use efavirenz 600 mg once daily (od). It should be made clear to patients that they may need an extra 200 mg efavirenz in addition to Atripla. Rifampicin and nevirapine are both used widely in resource-poor countries because they are cheap and readily available. There are data indicating that nevirapine levels are reduced by 20–55% by rifampicin [82–87]. PLX4032 Selleck Rucaparib The World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that no ‘lead-in’ period for nevirapine is needed if the patient is already on rifampicin – but they give no recommendation rating for this strategy. To overcome the problem of low nevirapine levels

with rifampicin, one trial administered 400 mg nevirapine as lead-in dose, increasing to 600 mg [88]. The pharmacokinetics were satisfactory but there was a high incidence of nevirapine hypersensitivity during the dose escalation period. Two cohort studies have shown high rates of HIV viral suppression with standard-dose nevirapine and rifampicin [83,89]. However, in a recent study of 1283 patients starting HAART while on rifampicin, 209 people on nevirapine and 1074 on efavirenz, virological failure rates were higher, with an odds ratio of 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–4.7] in the nevirapine arm vs. the efavirenz or not-on-TB-treatment arm [90]. We recommend that, where alternatives exist, rifampicin should not be used with nevirapine. [DII] If there are no alternatives to using nevirapine with rifampicin, then normal doses should be used and TDM performed. No data are available and no studies are planned. It is thought that they should not be coadministered.

The ROI comprised 419 voxels, each one being 4 × 4 × 4 mm in size

The ROI comprised 419 voxels, each one being 4 × 4 × 4 mm in size. We computed the whole-brain RSFC associated with each of the 419 voxels within the ventrolateral ROI, using the same methods described above. We then computed the similarity between every possible pairing of the 419 RSFC maps, using eta squared (η2). The η2 statistic was

recently applied to RSFC data for this purpose by Cohen et al. (2008), and varies between 0 (no similarity) and 1 (identical). Cohen et al. suggested that η2 provides a better measure of similarity JQ1 manufacturer between two images than spatial correlation, because it can take into account differences in scaling and offset between two images, while correlation is unaffected by these factors. We computed a 419 × 419 η2 matrix describing the similarity between each pair of the 419 RSFC maps for every participant (36 in total). We used the spectral clustering toolbox written for Matlab by Verma and Meila (available at to partition the left ventrolateral frontal ROI into K clusters, where K ranged from 2 to 10. Specifically, we used the Meila–Shi (multicut) algorithm (Meila & Shi, 2001), which performs a generalized Eigen decomposition of the normalized Lagrangian of similarity matrix A (here, the 419 × 419 matrix

of η2 values), then applies the k-means clustering algorithm to partition the data on the basis of K highest eigenvectors. The eigenvectors of the similarity matrix provide information about the data’s structure. By performing partitional clustering (with k-means)

on the basis of these eigenvectors, spectral clustering makes use of this information (the data’s spectrum) to form clusters of voxels that maximize intra-cluster similarity (here, η2) and minimize inter-cluster similarity. For comparison, we also partitioned the data using standard hierarchical clustering, as implemented in the Matlab Statistics toolbox. Hierarchical clustering is an agglomerative method, which starts by treating each data point as a singleton cluster, then, as K decreases, successively merges previously established selleck chemicals clusters (visualized as a dendrogram or tree). Here, we formed clusters of voxels on the basis of average linkage, i.e. the unweighted average of the distances (1−η2) between all pairs of voxels, where one member of the pair is assigned to one cluster and the other member is assigned to a different cluster. At each iteration, K clusters are formed by merging the two clusters (from the K + 1 solution) exhibiting the smallest average distances. In order to determine the optimal K for the ventrolateral ROI, we used a split-half comparison procedure. First, we randomly assigned each of the 36 participants to one of two groups of 18 participants.