, 2009) Rat cDNA encoding GluD2 was a gift from Dr J Boulter (U

, 2009). Rat cDNA encoding GluD2 was a gift from Dr J. Boulter (University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA). Mouse cDNAs encoding NL1(−) and NRX2β were gifts from Dr P. Sheiffele (University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland). cDNA encoding Flag was added to the 3′ end of mouse NRXs or LRRTM2 cDNA. For green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NL1(−), cDNA encoding enhanced GFP was inserted between amino acids 776 and 777. For immunoglobulin Fc fragment-fusion constructs, the N-terminal

domain (NTD) of GluD2 (amino acids 1–430), the extracellular domain of NRX1β(S4+) (amino acids 1–393), LRRTM2 (amino acids 1–421) or NL1(−) (amino acids 1–696) and CD4 (a gift from Dr Y. Oike, School of Dactolisib Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan) were added immediately before the Fc fragment of human IgG1. The cDNA constructs were cloned in pCAGGS vector (provided by Dr J. Miyazaki, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan). The HA-tagged Cblns or Fc fusion proteins were expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293

tSA cells (a gift from Dr R. Horn, Thomas Jefferson University Medical School, Philadelphia, PA, USA) as previously described (Matsuda et al., 2009). The concentration LY2109761 ic50 of each recombinant protein was quantified by immunoblot analyses with purified 6 × histidine-tagged HA-Cbln1 or purified TrkB-Fc (R&D Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) as the standard (Ito-Ishida et al., 2008). HA-Cbln1, 2 or 4, or Fc fusion proteins were incubated with biotinylated anti-HA (BIOT-101L mouse; Covance Research Products, Berkeley, CA, USA) or biotinylated anti-Fc (609-1602 goat; Rockland Immunochemicals, Gilbertsville, PA, USA) and then immobilized to avidin beads (Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin; Invitrogen). Mixed cerebellar cultures were prepared from embryonic day 17 to day-of-birth ICR or cbln1-null Isotretinoin mice as previously described (Matsuda et al., 2009). Cells were plated at a density

of 2 × 105 cells on plastic coverslips (13.5 mm in diameter) and maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium/F12 containing 100 μm putrescine, 30 nm sodium selenite, 0.5 ng/mL tri-iodothyronine, 0.25 mg/mL bovine serum albumin, 3.9 mm glutamate and N3 supplement (100 μg/mL apotransferrin, 10 μg/mL insulin and 20 nm progesterone) in 5% CO2 at 37 °C. Dissociated cultures of hippocampal or cortical neurons were prepared from embryonic day 17–18 mice as previously described Forrest et al., 1994) and maintained in Neurobasal medium supplemented with NS21 (Chen et al., 2008) and l-glutamine (Invitrogen). Cultured neurons were transfected at 7–8 days in vitro (DIV) using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen). HA-Cbln or NRX1β beads were added to the culture medium at 8–11 DIV and incubated for 3–4 days. Heterologous synapse formation assays were performed using HEK293 cells as previously described (Kakegawa et al., 2009).

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