Infect Immun 2004,72(9):5143–5149.PubMedCrossRef 64. Hense BA, Kuttler C, Muller J, Rothballer M, Hartmann A, Sapitinib cost Kreft JU: Does efficiency sensing unify diffusion and quorum sensing? Nat Rev Microbiol 2007,5(3):230–239.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions JNW conceived, designed and performed the experiments, and drafted the manuscript. CLG performed computational analyses and assisted in drafting the manuscript. KLD performed computational analyses, contributed to manuscript development and critically revised the manuscript. HRG helped to
analyze the data and critically revised the manuscript. LGA contributed to the data acquisition and critically revised the manuscript. TAF conceived and coordinated the study and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background RNA polymerase holoenzyme, consisting of a 5-subunit core RNA polymerase (α2ββ’ω) and a dissociable subunit, sigma (σ), initiates bacterial transcription. The σ factor contains selleck compound many of the promoter recognition determinants and several σ factors each recognizing their specific class of promoter sequences have been described [1–5]. In general, in exponentially growing bacteria Quisinostat chemical structure transcription is initiated by RNA polymerase carrying the housekeeping σ, known as σ70 . Alternative σ factors mediate transcription of regulons activated
under specific environmental conditions [7, 8]. The activity of many alternative σs is inhibited by a specific anti-σ factor. In a wide variety of bacterial species the σ factor
σE,, also known as extracytoplasmic isothipendyl factor or ECF, belonging to the group IV σs, is essential in mounting responses to environmental challenges such as oxidative stress, heat shock, and misfolding of membrane proteins [9, 10]. In addition, σE is of importance for virulence of bacterial pathogens [11–22]. The regulon size of σE varies widely among bacterial species studied, ranging from 89 unique σE controlled transcription units in E. coli and related bacteria  to a relatively small regulon of 5 genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae . In most examples, the gene encoding σE (rpoE) is located in an autoregulated operon that also contains, directly downstream of rpoE, the gene encoding its cognate anti-σE factor [25–28]. Extensive sequence analysis showed that about one third (1265/˜3600) of known and predicted anti-group IV σ factors, encoded in a gene cluster with a group IV σ (with only one exception), contain a conserved structural N-terminal fold, recently described as the anti-sigma domain (ASD) . Typically, the ASD is in the N-terminus, oriented towards the cytoplasm, preceding a C-terminal transmembrane segment. However, 20% of the 1265 ASD containing proteins are not predicted to contain a transmembrane spanning C-terminal domain .