Curr Biol 2001,11(4):258–262 PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contribution

Curr Biol 2001,11(4):258–262.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions RCS, GRQS, DSN and MFN retrieved, analyzed, prepared the AtlasT4SS dataset (sequence, functional annotation, cross-references…) and illustrated the relational database. RCS and GRQS performed scripts for automated data retrieval and developed the current web pages. MFN, MOCC and CCK in cooperation carried out the CDS annotation and designed the

T4SS hierarchical classification. NCBL worked on the phylogenetic trees figures. MFN and ATRV managed the project. learn more ATRV is the team leader and provides financial support. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Sugarcane is an efficient substrate for bioethanol production, wich is currently largely used in Brazil as a substitute for fossil fuels. Traditionally, sugarcane crops are burnt before harvest, in order to remove leaves, thus facilitating easier manual harvest. However, this procedure results in high emissions of particulate matter and smoke, which can be harmful to humans and livestock. Current Seliciclib in vivo regulation of bioethanol production is leading to a transition towards mechanical harvest. Several authors have reported the positive effects of unburnt harvest (green cane) on soil fertility, soil structure, soil C levels and biological activity [1–3]. Most of these data have been generated in studies

in the Atlantic Forest biome, however none has addressed the microbial community structures and diversities in soils under burnt versus green cane management in Cerrado Biome. The Cerrado is the second largest terrestrial biome in Brazil and it is characterized by a savannah-like vegetation on ancient and plain soils [4]. Currently, cultivation of sugarcane is increasing in this region, with some states showing a 300% expansion of cropped areas over the last few years [5]. Due to high Fluorometholone Acetate concentrations of endemic

plant species and the accelerated pace of deforestation, the Cerrado AZD5582 price region has been classified as a high priority area for biodiversity conservation [6]. Therefore, there is a need to develop studies that address the effects of sugarcane expansion in Cerrado soils. The use of agricultural land for cropping generally results in modifications of the soil biological and physicochemical properties, which, in turn, affect soil biogeochemical processes such as nutrient cycling and gas emissions, influencing ecosystem productivity and sustainability [7–11]. Brazil is the fifth largest contributor to the global emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). A major part, up to 75%, is the consequence of unsustainable agricultural practices next to deforestation, which include removal of crop residues, exposure of the soil surface to erosion, excessive plowing and the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers in excess [12–14].

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