An alternative approach consists of Ab-mediated targeting of anti

An alternative approach consists of Ab-mediated targeting of antigens to endocytic receptors expressed by DC in vivo3, 4. In mice, this method can elicit powerful cellular and humoral responses, beneficial in models of cancer or infection 5–11. Conversely, it can also lead to antigen-specific tolerance, mTOR inhibitor useful for

limiting autoimmune diseases or allograft rejection 5, 8, 12–14. Whether antigen targeting to DC results in tolerance or immunity depends on the nature of the targeting Ab, antigen dose, co-administered adjuvants, immunological readout used to measure response, and importantly, the receptor used for targeting 3, 4. Ideally, the latter should be restricted in expression to DC to allow for focused antigen delivery, and should additionally AZD1152-HQPA ic50 be capable of mediating endocytosis of bound Ab–antigen conjugates and delivering these to antigen processing pathways. In addition, a versatile receptor for antigen targeting should be “neutral” in that its targeting by antibodies should not result in overwhelming

delivery of signals that instruct DC to prime particular types of immune responses. Antigen targeting to such “neutral” receptors can then be combined with defined immunomodulators to favor specific immune outcomes, ranging from immunological tolerance to different kinds of immunity. DC comprise multiple subsets that may be specialized to perform distinct and, sometimes, opposing functions 15, 16. Thus, another consideration in targeting approaches is whether it might be preferable to direct antigens to a single DC subset or to multiple subtypes. Of the large panel of endocytic surface molecules tested as targeting receptors to date, many are expressed by multiple DC subsets and by other populations of

hematopoietic and/or non-hematopoietic cells 3, 4. In search for receptors restricted in expression to specific DC Oxalosuccinic acid subsets, we identified a novel endocytic C-type lectin receptor that we named DC NK lectin group receptor-1 (DNGR-1) 9, 17, 18. In mice, DNGR-1 (also known as CLEC9A) is expressed at high level by the CD8α+ subset and at low level by plasmacytoid DC (pDC) 9, 17, 18. In our studies, mouse DNGR-1 was not detected on other leukocytes, although others have reported low levels of expression on a subset of B cells 17. Interestingly, DNGR-1 expression is also very restricted to DC in human PBMC as it is detected almost exclusively on lineage-negative BDCA-3+ cells 9, 17, 18, a subtype of DC proposed to constitute the functionally equivalent of the mouse CD8α+ DC population 19. DNGR-1 binds to an unidentified ligand(s) exposed in necrotic cells and is involved in crosspresentation of dead-cell-associated antigens 20. In line with this role, we found that antigens targeted to mouse DNGR-1 via antibodies were efficiently crosspresented by CD8α+ DC to CD8+ T cells 9, 17.

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