2E,F) In INIBD, ubiquitin-positive nuclear inclusions were found

2E,F). In INIBD, ubiquitin-positive nuclear inclusions were found in both neurons

and glial cells. FIG4 immunoreactivity was present in nuclear inclusions in neurons (Fig. 2G), but not in glial cells. In aged normal controls and patients with neurodegenerative diseases, Marinesco bodies were observed in the nuclei of substantia nigra pigmented neurons, and were strongly positive for FIG4 (Fig. 2H). In addition, Hirano bodies in the hippocampus were FIG4 positive (Fig. 2I). There was no apparent difference in the staining intensity of neuronal cytoplasms with and without inclusions between patients with neurodegenerative diseases and normal controls. Double immunofluorescence Osimertinib clinical trial analysis check details revealed co-localization of FIG4 and phosphorylated tau in Pick bodies (Fig. 3A–C) and neuropil threads (Fig. 3D–F) in Pick’s disease, the latter corresponding to small Pick bodies in the neurites.[27, 28] The average proportion of FIG4-positive Pick bodies relative to the total number of inclusions was

88.7%. In both brainstem-type and cortical Lewy bodies, FIG4 immunoreactivity was concentrated in the central portion and α-synuclein immunoreactivity was more intense in the peripheral portion (Fig. 3G–L). The average proportion of FIG4-positive brainstem-type and cortical Lewy bodies relative to the total number of inclusions was 88.9% and 45.3%, respectively. Co-localization of FIG4 with polyglutamine or ubiquitin was demonstrated in NNIs Resveratrol in DRPLA (Fig. 3M–O), SCA3 (Fig. 3P–R) and INIBD (Fig. 3S–U). The FIG4 positivity rate of NNIs in DRPLA, SCA3 and INIBD was 19.5%, 19.7% and 28.6%, respectively. Almost all Marinesco bodies (99.8%) were positive for FIG4. In rodents, FIG4 is abundantly expressed in neurons and myelin-forming cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems during neural development, and is markedly diminished in neurons of the adult CNS.[4] In the present study, we demonstrated that FIG4 immunoreactivity was present

in neuronal cytoplasm in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral ganglia of adult humans. Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system were also strongly immunolabeled with anti-FIG4, whereas oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the CNS were weakly positive. These findings suggest that FIG4 is widely expressed in neurons and glial cells throughout the adult human nervous system. In the present study, no FIG4 immunoreactivity was found in a variety of neuronal and glial inclusions in sporadic TDP-43 proteinopathy (ALS and FTLD-TDP type B). Although TDP-43-positive neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions have been found in a previous case of SCA2,[13] no FIG4-immunoreactive inclusions were noted in that case. Our data indicate that FIG4 is not incorporated into TDP-43 inclusions. We further demonstrated that the majority of Pick bodies were immunopositive for FIG4.

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