“To assess and compare postoperative prostate volume chang

“To assess and compare postoperative prostate volume changes following 532-nm laser vaporization (LV) and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). To investigate whether differences in volume reduction are associated with differences

in clinical outcome. In this prospective, non-randomized study, 184 consecutive patients undergoing 120 W LV (n = 98) or TURP (n = 86) were included. Transrectal INCB28060 datasheet three-dimensional ultrasound and planimetric volumetry of the prostate were performed preoperatively, after catheter removal, 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months. Additionally, clinical outcome parameters were recorded. Mann-Whitney U test and analysis of covariance were utilized for statistical analysis. Postoperatively, a significant prostate volume reduction was detectable in both groups. However, the relative volume reduction was lower following LV (18.4 vs. 34.7 %, p smaller than 0.001). After 6 weeks, prostate volumes continued to decrease in both groups, yet differences between the groups were less pronounced. Nonetheless, the relative volume reduction remained significantly lower following LV (12 months 43.3 vs. 50.3 %, p smaller than 0.001). All clinical outcome parameters improved significantly in both groups. However, LY3023414 concentration the maximum flow rate (Q (max))

and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) reduction were significantly lower following LV. Subgroup analyses revealed significant differences only if the initial prostate volume was bigger than 40 ml. Re-operations were necessary in three patients following LV. The modest but significantly lower volume reduction following LV was associated with a lower PSA reduction, a lower Q (max) and more re-operations. Given the lack of long-term results after LV, our results are helpful

for preoperative patient counseling. Patients with large prostates and no clear indication for the laser might not benefit from the procedure.”
“Fracture-dislocation of the lower cervical spine is a severe traumatic lesion, most frequently resulting in tetraplegia. Treatment is usually painful and time consuming. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical curative effect MI-503 concentration of immediate reduction under general anesthesia and single-staged anteroposterior spinal reconstruction for fracture-dislocation of the lower cervical spine. Twelve cases of traumatic lower cervical spinal fracture-dislocation were retrospectively analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011. The injury level was C4/C5 in 4, C5/C6 in 5, and C6/C7 in 3 patients. The spinal cord function grades according to the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (2000 edition amended) before operation were as follows: grade A in 2 cases, grade B in 2 cases, grade C in 5 cases, grade D in 2 cases, and grade E in 1 case. On admission, all patients underwent immediate reduction under general anesthesia and single-staged anteroposterior spinal reconstruction by circumferential fixation/fusion.

alpha-Synuclein localizes to the nerve terminal, but biochemical

alpha-Synuclein localizes to the nerve terminal, but biochemical experiments have not revealed a tight association with membranes. To address the dynamics of the protein in live cells, we have used photobleaching and found that alpha-synuclein exhibits high mobility, although distinctly less than an entirely soluble protein. Further, neural activity controls the distribution of alpha-synuclein, causing its dispersion from the synapse. In addition to the presumed role of alpha-synuclein dynamics in synaptic function, changes in its physiological

behavior may underlie the pathological A-1210477 changes associated with Parkinson’s disease. (C) 2010 Movement Disorder Society”
“The biological and economic values of coral reefs are highly vulnerable to increasing atmospheric and ocean carbon dioxide concentrations. We applied the COMBO simulation model (COral Mortality and Bleaching Output) to three major U.S. locations for shallow water reefs: South Florida, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii. We compared estimates of future coral cover from 2000 to 2100 for a “business as usual” (BAU) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario with a GHG mitigation policy scenario involving full international participation in reducing GHG emissions. We also calculated the economic value of changes selleck kinase inhibitor in coral cover using a benefit transfer approach based on published studies of consumers’

recreational values for snorkeling and diving on coral reefs as well as existence values for coral reefs. Our results suggest that a reduced emissions scenario would provide a large benefit to shallow water reefs in Hawaii by delaying or avoiding potential future bleaching events. For Hawaii, reducing emissions is projected to result in an estimated “avoided loss” from 2000 to 2100 of approximately $10.6 billion in recreational use values compared to a BAU scenario. However, reducing emissions is projected to provide only a minor economic benefit in Puerto Rico and South Florida, where sea-surface temperatures are already close to bleaching EGFR inhibitor thresholds and coral cover is

projected to drop well below 5% cover under both scenarios by 2050, and below 1% cover under both scenarios by 2100.”
“The excited state dynamics of polycrystalline tetracene films are studied using femtosecond transient absorption in combination with picosecond fluorescence, continuing work reported in an earlier paper [J.J. Burdett, A.M. Muller, D. Gosztola, and C.J. Bardeen, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144506 (2010)]. A study of the intensity dependence of the singlet state decay is conducted to understand the origins of the discrepancy between the broadband transient absorption and fluorescence experiments seen previously. High-sensitivity single channel transient absorption experiments allow us to compare the transient absorption dynamics to the fluorescence dynamics measured at identical laser fluences.

It is possible to visualize the fossa ovalis on pre-ablation

\n\nIt is possible to visualize the fossa ovalis on pre-ablation CT and localize the transseptal needle accurately within the margins of

the fossa ovalis utilizing EnSite Fusion (TM) and Verismo (TM) software.”
“Purpose: There are controversial reports regarding the long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS). The reported complete success rates from studies in different populations around the world are 13% to 77%. selleck compound This prospective study was aimed to evaluate the IOP lowering effect of deep sclerectomy with Mitomycin C (DSMMC) in a group of Iranian patients with open angle glaucoma.\n\nMethods: Ninety eyes of 87 patients with medically uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study and were surgically treated by DSMMC. All patients had complete eye examination before and at regular intervals after the operation. Surgical success was considered for IOP of <= 21 mmHg.\n\nResults: The mean age was 64 +/- 12 years; the mean follow-up was 33 +/- 22 months. The mean preoperative IOP of 42 +/- 13 mmHg was significantly decreased to the mean final IOP of 22 +/- 11 mmHg (P<0.001). The IOP lowering effect of surgery reduced eFT-508 manufacturer by time (P<0.001). Cystic bleb was developed in 13.3% of eyes. The

probability for an IOP <= 21 mmHg was 35% without the use of antiglaucoma drops and 71% with or without the use of antiglaucoma drops.\n\nConclusion: DSMMC could effectively reduce IOP in eyes with POAG and was accompanied by few operative complications. Most of the patients needed to continue using antiglaucoma drops after the operation. This procedure is not fair whenever low target IOPs are required.”

jurisdictions require cyclists to wear bicycle helmets. The UK is currently not one of these. However, an increasing number of interest groups, including the British Medical Association, want to change the status quo. They argue that mandatory cycle helmet laws will reduce the incidence of head injuries and that this will be both good for cyclists (because they will suffer fewer head injuries) and good for society (because the burden of having to treat cyclists suffering from head injuries will be reduced). In selleck kinase inhibitor this paper we argue against this position. We suggest that cycle helmets may not be especially effective in reducing head injuries and we suggest that the imposition of such a restrictive law would violate people’s freedom and reduce their autonomy. We also argue that those who accept such a restrictive law would be committed to supporting further legislation which would force many other groups – including pedestrians – to take fewer risks with their health. We conclude that cycle helmet legislation should not be enacted in the UK unless, perhaps, it is restricted to children.

All rights reserved “
“Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread

All rights reserved.”
“Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a wide variety of life-threatening diseases. Especially for the colonization of human tissues and the development of invasiveness, surface-exposed proteins are of major importance. In the present studies, we optimized a proteolytic shaving approach to identify those surface-exposed

protein domains – the surfacome PF-04929113 in vitro – of S. aureus that are accessible to extracellular bio-macro-molecules, for example in the host milieu. Subsequently, this approach was applied to define the surfacomes of four strains with different genetic backgrounds. This resulted in the identification of 96 different proteins. Surprisingly, the overlap between the surfacomes of the four different strains was below 10% and each strain displayed its own characteristic set of surface-exposed proteins. The data were also evaluated at the peptide level and here we observed a similar phenomenon. From 190 unique peptides only five were commonly found in the four strains. Besides well known cell wall proteins, we also identified some essential proteins, several yet uncharacterized exported proteins and predicted intracellular proteins. These results show for the first time that the cell surface of different S. aureus strains is not only highly variable, but also that the displayed proteins are very heterogeneous.”

Schools are important foci of influenza transmission and potential targets for surveillance and interventions. We compared several school-based influenza monitoring systems selleck products with clinic-based influenza-like

illness (ILI) surveillance, and assessed the variation in illness rates between and within schools.\n\nMethods: During the initial wave of pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) infections from June to Sept 2009 in Singapore, we collected data on nation-wide laboratory confirmed cases (Sch-LCC) and daily Rigosertib research buy temperature monitoring (Sch-DTM), and teacher-led febrile respiratory illness reporting in 6 sentinel schools (Sch-FRI). Comparisons were made against age-stratified clinic-based influenza-like illness (ILI) data from 23 primary care clinics (GP-ILI) and proportions of ILI testing positive for pdmH1N1 (Lab-ILI) by computing the fraction of cumulative incidence occurring by epidemiological week 30 (when GP-ILI incidence peaked); and cumulative incidence rates between school-based indicators and sero-epidemiological pdmH1N1 incidence (estimated from changes in prevalence of A/California/7/2009 H1N1 hemagglutination inhibition titers >= 40 between pre-epidemic and post-epidemic sera). Variation in Sch-FRI rates in the 6 schools was also investigated through a Bayesian hierarchical model.\n\nResults: By week 30, for primary and secondary school children respectively, 63% and 79% of incidence for Sch-LCC had occurred, compared with 50% and 52% for GP-ILI data, and 48% and 53% for Sch-FRI.

On the other hand, C-2-ceramide did not cleave caspase-3 or poly(

On the other hand, C-2-ceramide did not cleave caspase-3 or poly(ADP- ribose) polymerase and kept Beclin 1 and Atg5 proteins stable in p21(+/+) MEFs, events that this time culminated in autophagy. When expression of the p21 protein was inhibited by small interfering RNA or when the overexpression of Beclin 1 or Atg5 was induced, autophagy rather than apoptosis was initiated in the p21(+/+)

MEFs treated with C-2-ceramide. In contrast, the exogenous expression of p21 or the silencing of Beclin 1 and Atg5 with small interfering RNA increased the number of apoptotic cells and decreased Selleckchem Selonsertib the number of autophagic cells among C-2-ceramide-treated p21(+/+) MEFs. gamma-Irradiation, which endogenously generates ceramide, induced a similar tendency in these MEFs. These results suggest

that p21 plays an essential role in determining the type of cell death, positively for apoptosis and negatively find more for autophagy.”
“Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging field in minimally invasive surgery that is driving the development of new technology and techniques. There are several proposed benefits to the NOTES approach, including potentially decreased abdominal pain, wound infections, and hernia formation Ko and Kalloo (Chin J Dig Dis 7:67-70, 2006); Wagh et al. (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3(9):892-896, 2005); ASGE/SAGES Working Group on Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (Gastrointest

Endosc 63(2):199-203, 2006); and Pearl and Ponsky (J GI Surg 12:1293-1300, 2008). Cholecystectomy has been one of the most commonly performed NOTES procedures to date, with the majority being performed through the transvaginal approach Marescaux et al. (Arch Surg 142:823-826, 2007); Zorron et al. (Surg Endosc 22:542-547, 2008); and Ramos et al. (Endoscopy 40:572-575, 2008). Transgastric approaches for cholecystectomy have been shown to be technically feasible in animal models and in several Combretastatin A4 in vivo unpublished human patients Sumiyama et al. (Gastrointest Endosc 65(7):1028-1034, 2007). This video demonstrates the technique by which we perform transgastric NOTES hybrid cholecystectomy in human patients.\n\nPatients with symptomatic gallstone disease are enrolled under an IRB approved protocol. A diagnostic EGD is performed to confirm normal anatomy. Peritoneal access is gained using a needle-knife cautery and balloon dilation under laparoscopic visualization. Dissection of the critical view of safety is performed endoscopically. The cystic duct and artery are clipped laparoscopically and the gallbladder is dissected off of the liver. The gastrotomy is closed intralumenally and over-sewed laparoscopically. The gallbladder is extracted out the mouth.

rs3027580 (NG_007119 1:g 4292G>C), and two SNPs in the GLA 5′-

rs3027580 (NG_007119.1:g.4292G>C), and two SNPs in the GLA 5′-untranslated region, rs2071225 (NM_000169.2:c.-10C>T) and rs3027585 (NM_000169.2:c.-12G>A), were identified with similar frequencies in sporadic PD patients and healthy controls. A novel variant (NG_007119.1:g.4488C>G) within the promoter region, at the 573 site upstream of the translation start codon (ATG), was found in one male PD patient, but not in female PD patients or healthy controls. Our data suggest that the sequence variant may affect GLA gene expression Volasertib by altering transcription

factor binding sites, contributing to the pathogenesis of sporadic PD. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We derive an analytical expression of the second virial coefficient of d-dimensional hard sphere fluids confined to slit pores by applying Speedy and Reiss’ interpretation of cavity space. We confirm that this coefficient is identical to the one obtained from the Mayer cluster expansion up to second order with respect to fugacity. The key step of both approaches is to evaluate either the surface area or the volume of the d-dimensional exclusion sphere confined to a slit pore. We, further, present an analytical form of thermodynamic functions

such as entropy and pressure tensor as a function of the size of the slit pore. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for d = 2 and d = 3, and the results are compared with

analytically obtained equations of state. They agree satisfactorily in the low density regime, and, for selleck given density, the agreement of the results becomes excellent as the width of the slit pore gets smaller, because the higher order virial coefficients become unimportant. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3564917]“
“P>Background\n\nWe lack population-based estimates of the rate of decompensation in people with compensated cirrhosis as well as estimates of the manner in which selleck chemicals llc the disease progresses once identified.\n\nAim\n\nTo determine the rate of decompensation and clinical progression of disease in patients with cirrhosis based upon clinical symptoms recorded electronically in general practice data.\n\nMethods\n\nUsing Cox proportional hazards regression, we modelled the rate of decompensation for patients from the UK General Practice Research Database with a diagnosis of cirrhosis between 1987 and 2002. We determined the clinical progression in the first year following diagnosis and subsequently categorizing patients through time according to a simple clinical staging system agreed at the Baveno IV consensus conference.\n\nResults\n\nThe rate of decompensation in patients with compensated cirrhosis was found to be 11% overall. The rate of decompensation was higher in the first year (at 31% compared with 7.3% afterwards) and in patients with an alcoholic aetiology.

New agonists are being explored for central nervous system and pe

New agonists are being explored for central nervous system and peripheral therapeutics based

on in vivo activity, such as chronic neuropathic pain. Ligands for receptors more distantly related to the X-ray template, i.e., P2YRs, have been introduced and are mainly used as pharmacological tools for elucidating the physiological role of extracellular nucleotides. Other ligand tools for drug discovery include fluorescent probes, radioactive probes, multivalent probes, and functionalized nanoparticles.”
“Memory CD4(+) T cells are central regulators of both humoral and cellular immune responses. T cell differentiation results in specific changes in chromatin structure and DNA methylation of cytokine genes. Although the methylation status of a limited number of DAPT mouse gene loci in T cells has been examined, the genome-wide DNA methylation Selleck CHIR-99021 status of memory CD4(+) T cells remains unexplored. To further elucidate the molecular signature of memory T cells, we conducted methylome and transcriptome analyses of memory CD4(+) T cells generated using T cells from TCR-transgenic mice. The resulting genome-wide DNA methylation profile revealed 1144 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the

murine genome during the process of T cell differentiation, 552 of which were associated with gene loci. Interestingly, the majority of these DMRs were located in introns. These DMRs included genes such as CXCR6, Tbox21, Chsy1, and Cish, which are associated Adriamycin clinical trial with cytokine production, homing to bone marrow, and immune responses. Methylation changes in memory T cells exposed to specific Ag appeared to regulate

enhancer activity rather than promoter activity of immunologically relevant genes. In addition, methylation profiles differed between memory T cell subsets, demonstrating a link between T cell methylation status and T cell differentiation. By comparing DMRs between naive and Ag-specific memory T cells, this study provides new insights into the functional status of memory T cells. The Journal of Immunology, 2013, 190: 4076-4091.”
“The class 1 equilibrative glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 are structurally similar but catalyze distinct modes of transport. GLUT1 exhibits trans-acceleration, in which the presence of intracellular sugar stimulates the rate of unidirectional sugar uptake. GLUT4-mediated uptake is unaffected by intracellular sugar. Using homology-scanning mutagenesis in which domains of GLUT1 are substituted with equivalent domains from GLUT4 and vice versa, we show that GLUT1 transmembrane domain 6 is both necessary and sufficient for trans-acceleration. This region is not directly involved in GLUT1 binding of substrate or inhibitors. Rather, transmembrane domain 6 is part of two putative scaffold domains, which coordinate membrane-spanning amphipathic helices that form the sugar translocation pore. We propose that GLUT1 transmembrane domain 6 restrains import when intracellular sugar is absent by slowing transport-associated conformational changes.

Accurate targeting of therapeutics precisely to the infarct borde

Accurate targeting of therapeutics precisely to the infarct border zone (BZ) may be essential for effective repair of the ischemic heart. Methods: Ischemia-reperfusion MI was induced in Yorkshire swine by inflation of an angioplasty balloon in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Fluorescent microspheres were injected into the BZ under NOGA catheter guidance, and this location was identified grossly then examined by immunohistochemistry and Western analysis. Results: Analysis of the infarct zone two hours post-MI revealed

a frankly necrotic region devoid of contractile proteins with marked activation of caspase-3. The NOGA-defined BZ closely approximates the grossly-defined PFTα BZ and contains intact myocytes and vasculature. Western analysis detected Akt expression and levels of Ca2+ handling proteins equivalent to that of viable tissues. Conclusions: Histological and Western Vorinostat analysis revealed that NOGA mapping precisely identifies grossly and molecularly defined infarct BZ at a location where there are still viable cells and vessels capable of supporting novel therapeutic strategies. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume 5: 416421″

three-step plasma treatmentactivation, functionalization and polymerizationhas been used to deposit a thin plasma polymer with amine groups on carbon fibres (CFs). This plasma polymer has strong adhesion to the CF surface and the amine groups enable strong bonding to a matrix. The CFs were first treated by Ar plasma to activate and clean the surface, followed

by O-2 plasma to incorporate oxygen-containing functional groups, and finally a heptylamine thin film was deposited using combined continuous wave and pulsed plasma polymerization. Strong adhesion between the plasma polymer and the CF was observed. The fibre BIX-01294 strength was not affected by the treatment.”
“This study was designed to determine the morphological and biochemical effects of zinc sulfate and the role of metallothionein in ethanol-induced intestinal injury. Rats received zinc sulfate (100 mg/kg/d) for 3 consecutive d, 2 h prior to the administration of ethanol by gavage. Ethanol administration caused intestinal injury as determined by increased serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urea, creatinine, uric acid, and sialic acid levels, intestinal lipid peroxidation level, decreased serum catalase activity, intestinal glutathione level, and metallothionein expression. Zinc sulfate pretreatment of the ethanol group caused a decrease in histological damage, serum lactate dehydrogenase activity, urea, creatinine, uric acid, sialic acid levels, and intestinal lipid peroxidation level, but increases in serum catalase activity, intestinal glutathione level, and metallothionein expression.

This compartment likely contains CSCs since it

is express

This compartment likely contains CSCs since it

is expressing the putative CSC markers CD44, ALDH1 and CK14. This cell layer therefore should be considered a major therapeutic target in the treatment of head and neck cancer. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the clinical effectiveness of snapshot inversion recovery (SNAPIR), which is a dedicated optimized inversion-recovery-prepared single-shot fast compound screening assay spin-echo T1-weighted sequence, in the delineation of normal fetal brain anatomy compared with that of the currently used T1-weighted gradient-echo protocol, which often yields images of poor quality due to motion artifacts and inadequate contrast.\n\nMaterials and Methods: This study was approved by the hospital research ethics committee,

and informed written consent was obtained from all patients. Forty-one fetuses were examined at 19-37 weeks gestation (mean, 29 weeks gestation) by using both the standard T1-weighted protocol and the optimized T1-weighted SNAPIR protocol with a 1.5-T Selleck DZNeP imager. Two independent blinded observers performed qualitative analysis, evaluating overall diagnostic quality, detailed anatomic delineation, and severity of motion artifacts. Quantitative analysis comprised calculation of contrast ratios (CRs) for the cortical gray matter, subplate, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare image rating scores, the paired t test was used to compare CRs, and kappa statistics were used to test interobserver agreement.\n\nResults: Both overall diagnostic quality (P < .001) and detailed anatomic delineation (P < .001) were enhanced with SNAPIR compared with the standard T1-weighted acquisition. Also, motion artifacts were

less severe (P = .008) and less extensive (P < .001) with SNAPIR. Corresponding CRs were increased with SNAPIR in seven of eight examined regions.\n\nConclusion: this website SNAPIR is a promising robust alternative to the current T1-weighted acquisitions; its role in the detection of disease requires further study. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Background: Guidelines recommend evaluation of cardiac function, valvular and ischemic heart disease, and thyroid, kidney, and liver function on initial diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Hypothesis: We hypothesized that initial workup of patients with newly identified AF would vary by age, sex, and burden of comorbid illness. Methods: In a retrospective analysis of a large sample of commercially insured patients 18 to 64 years old (n = 40 245) and a nationally representative 5% cohort of Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older (n = 204 676), we measured claims for guideline-recommended services for initial evaluation of AF among patients with a new diagnosis between 2000 and 2008.

The study end points in study 1 were euthyroidism, hyperthyroidis

The study end points in study 1 were euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism,

and changes in GO. In study 2, the end points were euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, relapse, and changes in GO. Results: Both RIT and ATD were associated with worsening GO and new-onset GO. Both RIT and ATD led to similar aggravation of pre-existing GO or the development to new-onset GO. After RIT or ATD, the euthyroid patients (without levothyroxine substitution) demonstrated NCT-501 mw an improvement in GO, with 78-89% patients with preexisting GO exhibiting improvement, whereas hyperthyroid, hypothyroid and relapsed patients had worsening or new-onset GO. Conclusions: Thyroid function is a dominant risk factor. Thyroid function may be the most important determinant in worsening or new-onset GO in both the natural disease course and in treated patients, independent of the kind of treatment. Therefore, we recommend euthyroidism as a goal of AZD4547 mouse treatment.”
“In a previous study, we showed that ultrasound can dramatically reduce the time required for tissue fixation in formalin. It generally is believed that ultrasound increases the speed of tissue fixation in two possible ways: 1) increasing the speed of penetration of fixative molecules into tissue samples and 2) increasing the

speed of cross-linking reactions. We addressed here the second possible way by using protein solutions and cultured cells, which minimized the effects of the penetration factor. Proteins or cultured cells in solution were find more fixed with formalin with or without ultrasound irradiation. Fixed proteins and cell lysates then were separated by SDS-poly acrylamide gel

electrophoresis and subjected to Western blotting to examine cross-linking formation in certain proteins. Unexpectedly, irradiation with ultrasound did not produce an observable difference in the rate of cross-linking in protein solutions. In similar experiments using cultured cells, however, we observed a significant reduction in recovery of certain proteins from cells fixed by formalin under the influence of ultrasound, which indicated that the ultrasound fixation procedure accelerated cross-linking formation within cells. Studies on protein and cell fixation without ultrasound showed that cross-linking formation was closely related to incubation temperature, which indicates that the heating function, which is inherently associated with ultrasound is another major factor in the ability of ultrasound to accelerate cross-linking.”
“The primary motor cortex has an important role in the precise execution of learned motor responses. During motor learning, synaptic efficacy between sensory and primary motor cortical neurons is enhanced, possibly involving long-term potentiation and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-specific glutamate receptor function.