of LAB has been characterized in other types of fermentation processes. In the United States, the fermentation process uses corn starch or fiber hydrolysates as substrate for fermentation. In this process, L. acidophilus, L. agilis, L. amylovorus, L. brevis, L. casei, L. hilgardii, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and W. paramesenteroides are commonly found [6, 7]. The bacterial diversity was also analyzed in ethanol fermentation processes in Vietnam . L. brevis, L. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa and W. paramesenteroides were the most frequently found LAB. Moreover, acetic acid bacteria SBE-��-CD (Acetobacter orientalis and A. pasteurianus), amylase-producing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. sporothermodurans) and some plant pathogen bacteria (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum and Pelomonas puraquae) were also reported. The species Lactobacillus vini was observed in association with the growth of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in a Swedish bioethanol refinery . This process passed by a period
of decrease in fermentation before stabilization. The present study also found a high abundance of Dekkera bruxellensis (107 CFUs/mL), possibly indicating an association between this yeast and LAB. Effects of LAB on Sacharomyces cerevisiae viability were reported by the inoculation of L. fermentum and L. delbrueckii Vitamin B12 in wheat mash batch fermentation . Lactobacillus www.selleckchem.com/products/epacadostat-incb024360.html paracasei was reported to affect yeast viability when lactic acid concentration in the process exceeded 8 g/L . This effect is more
pronounced when in combination with acetic acid . Induction of yeast flocculation has been associated with some L. fermentum strains in synergy with the presence of calcium, which leads to loss of yeast viability . Decrease of yeast cell viability was also induced by inactivated cells of L. fermentum, suggesting that bacterial metabolites can interfere in the yeast population . Strains of L. plantarum, L. fructivorans, L. fructosus and L. buchneri were also able to induce yeast flocculation depending on the cell density [19, 20]. Experiments performed at laboratory scale simulating the contamination with L. fermentum showed that viability of the yeast cells, sugar consumption and ethanol yield were severely affected when acetic acid was higher than 4.8 g/L . In the present work observations such as the microbiota alterations throughout the process, the presence of distinct populations of L. vini and L. fermentum, and the co-ocurrence of high numbers of D. bruxellensis and L. vini indicate a Defactinib complex microbial ecology in the bioethanol process.