The inconspicuous profile of the theca opening is visible in some

The inconspicuous profile of the theca opening is visible in some cells as “whiskers” at the base of the collar (Figure 5A, arrowheads). Length of the

body is 3–4.5 μm, width – 2 μm (n = 18). The length of the collar is equal to the body length, the flagellum is approx. 2 times longer than the body and the stalk covers up to 3 body lengths. Strain IOW73 was present as sedentary stalked solitary cells and as colonies of 2–4 cells (Figure 6A). The most typical colonies were two cells on a rather long stalk (up to 7 μm). The strain has an elongated vase-shaped cell with a narrow and prominent neck, surrounded MK-2206 cell line with a delicate, tightly enveloping, theca (see ultrastructure) with visible whisker. The body length is 2–4 μm, width – 1 μm (n = 22). The

length of the collar is equal to the body; the flagellum is 1.5-2 times longer than the body. The cell shape of both strains is similar to C. gracilis, studied by Leadbeater and Morton [28]. A contractile vacuole was not visible for cells cultivated at 22 ‰ but appeared when the salinity was reduced to 8–10 ‰ (Figure selleck 6A, B). Ultrastructure The electron microscopical investigations revealed an in general typical choanoflagellate cell structure for both strains (Figures 5, 6). As in many others colonial choanoflagellates: (1) the cells were covered with a thin sheath, which envelopes the whole body and the base of the collar (Figures 5A, B, 6B); (2) the collar was composed of approximately 30 microvilli in both isolates (not shown); (3) the Golgi apparatus lies under the base of flagellum (Figure 5B); (4) the flagellar

apparatus has a long transition zone, a flagellar kinetosome with radiating microtubules, and a non-flagellar centriole, all typical for choanoflagellates (Figure 5B, 6D); (5) a nucleus of vesicular type (Figure 6B) is located in the anterior-middle part of the cell; and (6) other organelles and inclusions are also those common for choanoflagellates. Rebamipide Additionally, food vacuoles with bacteria in different stages of digestion were found in the posterior half of the cell, and a contractile vacuole is located at the cell posterior. This latter structure has the typical appearance of a folded reservoir with coated pits and vesicles TH-302 mouse around it (Figure 6B). Finally, lipid droplets occur in the cytoplasm of some cells (Figures 5D, G, 6C). In contrast to these similarities, the internal structure of mitochondria—the shape of the cristae—is cardinally different from all other choanoflagellates investigated to date. The cells in both strains have mitochondria with tubular or sac-like cristae (Figure 1B including left upper insert, 5F, G, 6B insert lower left). In both types the cristae have tubular or saccular shape (Figure 5B, F, G). In the strain IOW94 mitochondria of two types can be seen: with normal matrix and developed cristae (Figure 5B, F), and with light matrix and rare cristae (Figure 5G).

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