Tetraspanins can potentially contribute to both adhesion-dependen

Tetraspanins can potentially contribute to both adhesion-dependent and adhesion-independent DC migration. Tetraspanins are best characterized by their ability to molecularly interact with integrins — adhesion molecules important in regulating cell migration in many diverse cell types [2]. Tetraspanins regulate integrin function, as frequently observed in the impaired adhesion and migration of tetraspanin-deficient cells of various lineages [27, 29-31]. Similarly, we demonstrate that adhesion to fibronectin is impaired in CD37−/− DCs under low shear flow (Fig. 6A) implicating a role for CD37 in regulating

outside-in signaling of α4β1 and/or α5β1 integrins in DCs. Tetraspanins are also known to interact with the cytoskeleton Selumetinib purchase via molecular interactions with ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins [37], and cross-linking tetraspanins at the cell surface can drive cytoskeletal rearrangement [38]. In Alpelisib purchase this study we observed impaired CD37−/− DC function in two processes known to require cytoskeletal rearrangement: integrin outside-in signaling, investigated by measuring adhesion under flow (Fig. 6A), as well as

cell spreading to form membrane protrusions (Fig. 6C–G). An effect of CD37 ablation on cytoskeletal rearrangement is also consistent with a recent report that the absence of another tetraspanin, CD81, results in inhibited integrin-dependent in vitro DC chemotaxis [28] and the formation of membrane protrusions, driven by

a dysregulation of Rac-1 activation. While the Cediranib (AZD2171) in vivo immunological effects of impaired migration of CD81−/− DCs were not studied [28], in the present paper it is clear that CD37 ablation profoundly affects in vivo DC migration which is the likely cellular mechanism that underlies the poor cellular immunity induced in CD37−/− mice. The next challenge is to unravel the molecular interactions of CD37 in DCs. C57BL/6 (WT), C57BL/6.CD37−/− (CD37−/−) [10], CD11cYFP, CD37−/−.CD11cYFP, and OT-I Ly5.1 mice were bred in house, or obtained from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute (Melbourne, Australia). Mice were housed under SPF conditions within the Burnet Institute animal facility (Austin Campus), the AMREP Animal Services, or the Nijmegen Medical Centre and used between 8 and 12 weeks of age. In vivo multiphoton imaging was performed on 8–10-week-old female CD37−/−.CD11cYFP mice with CD11cYFP mice used as controls. The corresponding campus animal ethics committees at Austin Hospital, AMREP Animal Services, Monash Medical Centre, or Nijmegen Medical Centre approved all animal experiments. Mice were challenged subcutaneously with 1–5 × 106 cells from either RMA (C57BL/6 — T-cell lymphoma) or RMA-Muc1 as described previously [39].

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