New agonists are being explored for central nervous system and peripheral therapeutics based
on in vivo activity, such as chronic neuropathic pain. Ligands for receptors more distantly related to the X-ray template, i.e., P2YRs, have been introduced and are mainly used as pharmacological tools for elucidating the physiological role of extracellular nucleotides. Other ligand tools for drug discovery include fluorescent probes, radioactive probes, multivalent probes, and functionalized nanoparticles.”
“Memory CD4(+) T cells are central regulators of both humoral and cellular immune responses. T cell differentiation results in specific changes in chromatin structure and DNA methylation of cytokine genes. Although the methylation status of a limited number of DAPT mouse gene loci in T cells has been examined, the genome-wide DNA methylation Selleck CHIR-99021 status of memory CD4(+) T cells remains unexplored. To further elucidate the molecular signature of memory T cells, we conducted methylome and transcriptome analyses of memory CD4(+) T cells generated using T cells from TCR-transgenic mice. The resulting genome-wide DNA methylation profile revealed 1144 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the
murine genome during the process of T cell differentiation, 552 of which were associated with gene loci. Interestingly, the majority of these DMRs were located in introns. These DMRs included genes such as CXCR6, Tbox21, Chsy1, and Cish, which are associated Adriamycin clinical trial with cytokine production, homing to bone marrow, and immune responses. Methylation changes in memory T cells exposed to specific Ag appeared to regulate
enhancer activity rather than promoter activity of immunologically relevant genes. In addition, methylation profiles differed between memory T cell subsets, demonstrating a link between T cell methylation status and T cell differentiation. By comparing DMRs between naive and Ag-specific memory T cells, this study provides new insights into the functional status of memory T cells. The Journal of Immunology, 2013, 190: 4076-4091.”
“The class 1 equilibrative glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 are structurally similar but catalyze distinct modes of transport. GLUT1 exhibits trans-acceleration, in which the presence of intracellular sugar stimulates the rate of unidirectional sugar uptake. GLUT4-mediated uptake is unaffected by intracellular sugar. Using homology-scanning mutagenesis in which domains of GLUT1 are substituted with equivalent domains from GLUT4 and vice versa, we show that GLUT1 transmembrane domain 6 is both necessary and sufficient for trans-acceleration. This region is not directly involved in GLUT1 binding of substrate or inhibitors. Rather, transmembrane domain 6 is part of two putative scaffold domains, which coordinate membrane-spanning amphipathic helices that form the sugar translocation pore. We propose that GLUT1 transmembrane domain 6 restrains import when intracellular sugar is absent by slowing transport-associated conformational changes.