Mol Biol Evol 2011, 28:2731–2739 PubMedCrossRef 38 Aziz RK, Bart

Mol Biol Evol 2011, 28:2731–2739.PubMedCrossRef 38. Aziz RK, Bartels D, Best AA, DeJongh M, Disz T, Edwards RA, Formsma K, Gerdes S,

Glass EM, Kubal M, Meyer F, Olsen GJ, Olson R, Osterman AL, Overbeek RA, McNeil LK, Paarmann D, Paczian T, Parrello B, Pusch GD, Reich C, Stevens R, Vassieva O, Vonstein V, Wilke A, Zagnitko O: The RAST Server: rapid annotations using subsystems technology. BMC Genomics 2008, MK-4827 concentration 9:75.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions PS carried out all the experiments and wrote the manuscript. SMD carried out the genomics study. ST and CG contributed the case report. VR helped in analyzing data. FB and MRG critically revised the manuscript. JMR conceived the idea, analyzed the data and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The type VI secretion system CB-5083 (T6SS) is a recently discovered mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria that targets secreted proteins to eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic cells [1, 2]. Like type III and type

IV secretion systems (T3SS and T4SS), the T6SS mediates the contact-dependent translocation of effector substrates directly into the recipient cell [3]. Although the genetic contents and organization may vary, 13 core subunits of T6SSs have been recognized [4]. Two of these are highly conserved [5], and we have demonstrated that the interaction between

these proteins occurs in a range of clinically important pathogens, including Vibrio cholerae, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis[6]. Since many of these proteins could also bind to cognate partners from other bacteria, the mechanism behind complex formation appears highly conserved. Moreover, a region encompassing a putative and conserved alpha-helix present in all of the VipA homologues of the 6 aforementioned bacteria was shown to be important for binding Thalidomide to their cognate partner protein [6]. Even subtle amino acid substitutions within this domain were found to result in essentially null mutant phenotypes for F. tularensis, neutralizing its ability to escape from the phagosomes and, thus, its ability to SB525334 mw replicate within the cytosol of infected macrophages and rendering it avirulent [6]. The VipA-binding domain of VipB proteins has been less characterized, but may reside within the N-terminus based on recent work in Burkholderia cenocepacia. The same region was also shown to be necessary for the T6SS activity of B. cenocepacia[7]. In V. cholerae, VipA/VipB have been shown to form filaments that structurally resemble bacteriophage T4 contractile tail sheaths and these were quickly disassembled by ClpV, an AAA+ traffic ATPase family protein [8–10].

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