” Later, other authors (eg,ref 2) proposed additional criteria t

” Later, other authors (eg,ref 2) proposed additional criteria that animal models need to fulfill. Suitable research models ought to display clear face validity (isomorphism), predictive validity (pharmacological correlation), and construct validity(homology

and similarity in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms). Currently, the third criterion is Cisplatin CAS regarded as having heuristic value because the central nervous processes that lead to anxiety/depression still have to be elucidated; therefore this criterion Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is regarded as desirable, but not essential.3 Thus, in an ideal and perfect model one would like to have causative conditions, symptom profiles, and treatment responses identical to those seen in the human disease state. Any animal model of depression, or of antidepressant activity, must account for the considerable symptom overlap between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders, eg, sleep disturbances, agitation, restlessness, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical irritability, difficulty concentrating, loss of control, fatigue, fear, distress and, of course, anxiety. Indeed, selleck chem Idelalisib comorbidity of anxiety disorders and MDD is the rule rather than the exception (eg, refs 4-6)with more than 80% of adults with depression also having significant symptoms of anxiety.7 Furthermore, most of the existing antidepressants successfully Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ameliorate anxiety as a component of depression (eg, ref 8). In this article we will discuss

relevant animal models that have been developed and are used to enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of the most common psychiatric disorders, depression and anxiety, and to guide the development Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of novel and more effective treatments. Animal

models of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical depression The diagnosis of depressive illness and anxiety relies almost exclusively on observation of behavior and interpersonal relations, and on reported feelings and beliefs of the patient.9 Therefore, several recent reviews claim that it is difficult to develop a true animal model of depressive disorders because mental illness may be a uniquely human condition. In Brefeldin_A particular, typical symptoms in depressed patients, such as recurring thoughts of suicide or death, or excessive thoughts of guilt, are impossible to model in animals. The creation of reasonably valid animal models of psychiatric diseases has been difficult, mainly due to both the verbal and personal nature of the symptoms to be modeled, eg, sadness or delusions, as well as the lack of clear etiological factors which can be used to design valid models. Moreover, unlike the situation with other neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease, we still have only a vague idea about the pathophysiological processes that underlie depression. The earliest models of depressive states in animals were based on maternal separation experiments in infant nonhuman primates.

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