Interestingly, similarly to Kirov et al,105 a deletion disrupting NRXN1 was found in identical twins concordant for childhood-onset schizophrenia. ERBB4, a type I transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for neuregulin (NRG1), was also
found to be disrupted by a 399 kb deletion in one schizophrenia patient. Similarly, a 503 kb deletion that disrupted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical SLC1A3, a glutamate transporter was also observed. However, this excess of rare CNVs was not selleck chemical Romidepsin replicated in an independent sample of Han Chinese schizophrenia patients (155 cases and 187 controls).109 Xu et al106 analyzed the presence of de novo CNVs and observed that these are approximately 8 times more frequent in sporadic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cases (10%, 15 of 152) than in controls (1.3% (2 of 159). Furthermore, they did not observe any de novo CNVs in familial cases (n=48). Additionally, sporadic cases of schizophrenia were ~1.5-times more likely to inherit a rare CNV (~30%, 46/152) than unaffected controls (~20%, 32/159). Among the de novo CNVs observed in cases, deletions were seen at 22q11.2 (1.8%) along with
deletions at 12p11.23 and 16p12.1p12.2 which were also observed by Walsh et al.112 The study by Stefansson et al107 Nutlin-3a FDA tested an interesting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hypothesis that regions in the genome that have a high mutation rate, but harbor rare CNVs, are likely to be selected against during evolution. These rare CNVs may be associated with disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, and mental retardation, which appear to reduce fecundity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the affected patients. Using SNP arrays to identify de novo rare CNVs in the healthy control population, they identified 66 de novo rare CNVs and tested for association with schizophrenia in two independent schizophrenia case-control samples (Phase I: 1433 cases and 33 250 controls; Phase II: 3285 cases and 7951 controls). They observed three deletions, 1q21.1, 15q11.2, and 15q13.3, to be nominally associated with schizophrenia and related psychosis in the Phase I samples. In the phase II sample, all three deletions
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were significantly associated with schizophrenia and related psychosis. In the combined sample, the odds ratio Batimastat (OR) varied from 14.8 for 1q21.1, 11.54 for 15q13.3 to 2.73 for 15q11.2. The 15q loci were not significant if patients with psychoses other than schizophrenia were excluded. The 1q21.1 deletion which varies from 1.35Mb to 2.19Mb was present in 0.23% (11 out of the 4718) of the cases compared with 0.02% (8 of 41 199) controls. The 470 kb deletion on 15q11.2 occurred in 0.55% of cases (26 of 4 718) versus 0.19% controls (79 of 41 194). The 15q13.3 deletion spans 1.57Mb and is present in 0.17% of cases (7 of 4213) versus 0.02% of controls (8 of 39 800). They also found the 22q11.2 deletion in 0.2% of the cases (8 of 3838). The association with 1q21.1 is interesting, as this region has been associated with schizophrenia.112 The 15q11.