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Lancet 2000; 355: 1071–1072. 103 Molina A, Zaia J, Krishnan A. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related lymphoma with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Blood Rev 2003; 17: 249–258. 104 Serrano D, Carrion R, Balsalobre P et al. HIV-associated lymphoma successfully treated with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Exp Hematol 2005; 33: 487–494. 105 Hoffmann C, Repp R, Schoch R et al. Successful autologous stem cell transplantation in a severely immunocompromised patient with relapsed AIDS-related B-cell lymphoma. Eur J Med Res 2006; 11: 73–76. 106 Krishnan A, Molina A, Zaia J et al. Durable remissions with autologous stem cell transplantation for high-risk HIV-associated lymphomas. Blood 2005; 105: ABT-263 manufacturer 874–878. 107 Gabarre J, Marcelin AG, Azar N et al. High-dose therapy plus autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lymphoma: results and impact on HIV disease. Haematologica 2004; 89: 1100–1108. 108 Re A, Cattaneo C, Michieli M et al. High-dose therapy and autologous peripheral-blood stem-cell transplantation as salvage treatment for HIV-associated lymphoma in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: LEE011 4423–4427. 109 Gisselbrecht C, Glass B, Mounier N et al. Salvage regimens with autologous transplantation for relapsed large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era.

J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 4184–4190. 110 Diez-Martin JL, Balsalobre P, Re A et al. Comparable survival between HIV+ and HIV- non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood Diflunisal stem cell transplantation. Blood 2009; 113: 6011–6014. 111 Balsalobre P, Diez-Martin JL, Re A et al. Autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with HIV-related lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 2192–2198. 112 Moskowitz CH, Schoder H, Teruya-Feldstein J et al. Risk-adapted dose-dense immunochemotherapy determined by interim FDG-PET in Advanced-stage diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 1896–1903. Primary central nervous

system lymphoma (PCNSL) is defined as a non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) confined to the cranio-spinal axis without systemic involvement. It occurs more frequently in patients with both congenital and acquired immunodeficiency. In HIV it is generally seen in patients with severe and prolonged immunosuppression. It can affect any part of the brain, leptomeninges, cranial nerves, eyes or spinal cord [1]. AIDS-related PCNSL occurs with a similar distribution across transmission risk groups and all ages, and is characteristically high-grade diffuse large B-cell or immunoblastic NHL [2]. Shortly after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a decline in the incidence of PCNSL was recognized and a meta-analysis of 48 000 individuals confirmed this significant decrease (relative risk 0.42, 99% CI: 0.24–0.75) [3].

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