Further studies are needed to shed new light on the current findi

Further studies are needed to shed new light on the current findings and to clarify the underlying mechanisms. For methodological reasons, most studies of in vivo conjugal plasmid transfer have been performed by adding donors and limited numbers of recipients in germ free animals [75, 76] or by challenging conventional fish with genetically tagged bacteria [77]. To the best of our knowledge, YH25448 chemical structure this is the first report on the effect of antibiotic treatment of an infection on the expression of the tra genes of an R-plasmid

harbored by the infecting pathogen and the early immune signals in a host model. Real-Time PCR technology offers a fast and reliable quantification of the mRNA production of any target sequence in a sample [78]. The results add information to our knowledge about development of antibiotic resistance in infected hosts including the clinical infection treatment and control scenario. Conclusions As expected the control of the A. hydrophila infection of zebrafish failed when tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamide were used due to the R-plasmid (pRAS1)

harbored by the pathogen. The same result was identified as expected when sub-inhibitory levels of selleck chemical flumequine were employed, whereas an effective dosage of flumequine reduced the clinical symptoms and controlled the pathogen and transfer of pRAS1. At the same time, the ineffective AZD6094 manufacturer therapeutants tetracycline, trimethoprim and sub-inhibitory concentrations of flumequine increased the expression levels of plasmid mobility genes. The results should be taken into

account by physicians and veterinarians when prescribing antibiotic drugs, underscoring Suplatast tosilate the need to avoid risk for augmenting the transfer of genetic drug resistance elements to commensal microbiota. This is the first combined in vivo study of antibiotic treatment on the innate immune system of the host and the conjugative activity of an R plasmid. A particularly valuable observation relates to the increased activity of the innate immune system caused by antibiotic exposure, even with ineffective drugs (R-plasmids) and at sub-therapeutic levels. Acknowledgements This study was supported by Norwegian School of Veterinary Science. We thank Hanne Nilsen for donating Aeromonas hydrophila (F315/10) and the National Veterinary Institute, Norway for donating Aeromonas salmonicida 718 (NVI 2402/89). We also thank Samuel Duodu and Stine Braaen for technical support for quantitative Real-Time PCR assays. Finally we extend our thanks to Duncan Colquhoun and Arve Lund, for helpful support in reviewing the manuscript. Disclosure statement No competing financial interests exist. References 1. van der Sar AM, Musters RJ, van Eeden FJ, Appelmelk BJ, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Bitter W: Zebrafish embryos as a model host for the real time analysis of Salmonella typhimurium infections.

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