For determination of predictive variables from the regression ana

For determination of predictive variables from the regression analysis, the exact shape of the myotube was irrelevant as long as the volume was a product of a constant and the length × width × thickness interaction. The in vitro myotubes were observed to be approximately ellipsoidal, so this simple shape was used for calculating the CSA and volume for each myotube. After selecting the best regression model, the force data were

normalized to the model parameters, and the coefficient of variance (COV), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the ratio of the standard deviation to the sample mean, was calculated. The COV was compared to the COV of the non-normalized data to determine the utility of using the regression model for reducing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical variation for comparison among experimental treatment groups. Bright field microscopy of the cultures, at 14 DIV, illustrated good morphology of the primary myotubes on the cantilevers. The myotube dimensions on the cantilevers as determined from confocal imaging ranged find more between the following values: length between 490 and 696μm, width between 11.7 and 23.4μm, and thickness between

7.9 and 13.0μm. The force, as calculated from the modified Stoney’s equation (Eqs. 1, 2, 3), ranged from 38 nN to 256 nN, and the stress in the myotube (Eq. 4) ranged from 350 to 1760Pa. Using the FEA approach, the forces and stresses Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in the myotubes ranged from 25 to 181 nN and 168 to 1170Pa,

respectively. The layout of the system and examples of confocal imaging, 3D reconstruction of a myotube, and FEA are presented in Figure ​Figure1.1. Direct comparison Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the force on each cantilever determined from the two methods revealed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that the Stoney’s equation approach matched the FEA approach in both trend and value, with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.97. In terms of absolute force values, the forces from Stoney’s equation differed from the FEA by a factor of roughly 1.4. Considering the vast differences in the mathematics involved between the two methods, these two approaches yielded force values that were well matched for simple systems. Figure ​Figure22 graphically indicates the Fossariinae differences between the forces calculated by the Stoney’s equation approach and the FEA approach. Figure 1 Layout of the finite element analysis model and an example of myotube force estimation where stresses in the myotube and cantilever are displayed. (a) Schematic of measurement system configuration. (b) Immunocytochemistry of a single myotube showing myosin … Figure 2 The forces calculated from the Stoney’s equation closely matched the forces calculated using finite element analysis (R2=0.97, regression shown with dashed line). The deviation from the y=x line (dotted line) for a …

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