a) Gpx activity, b) Catalase activity, c) Total antioxidant produ

a) Gpx activity, b) Catalase activity, c) Total antioxidant production. The experiments were performed in triplicates;

data shown reEPZ015938 research buy present mean + SD of three independent experiments. *P < 0.05 as compared Selleck Avapritinib with untreated cells. Discussion Woman breast cancer is the most important cause of mortality in the world [6]. Nowadays, some cytotoxic agents are used for its treatment including doxorubicin, daunorubicin, bleomycin, and cisplatin. However, they are costly and known to induce several side effects such as myelosuppression, anemia, and most importantly the generation of cellular resistance. For this, it is important to find alternative therapies or drugs to overcome these drawbacks [10]. Our in vitro studies showed that colloidal silver induced a dose-dependent cell death in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line through apoptosis, without affecting the viability of normal PBMC control cells. Most studies are focused find more on the effect of colloidal silver on bacterial growth, and the present study might contribute to the comprehension of this compound on cancer therapy. It has been known that cancer cells increased the rate of glycolysis; in this metabolic pathway lactate dehydrogenase

is involved in catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate into lactate, which consumes NADH and regenerates NAD+ [8]. In the present study, we showed that MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with colloidal silver, significantly reduced the dehydrogenase Dipeptidyl peptidase activity, resulting in decreased NADH/NAD+, which in turn induces cell death due to decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Death cell can also be produced by ROI (Reactive Oxygen Intermediates), and RNI (Reactive Nitrogen Intermediate) metabolites. Our results demonstrated

that nitric oxide production was not affected by colloidal silver treatments, as compared with untreated cells (*P < 0.05), suggesting that the MCF-7 breast cancer cell death was independent of nitric oxide production. In addition, it was observed that colloidal silver did not affect the catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities (*P < 0.05). However, the colloidal silver treatment increased superoxide dismutase activity compared with untreated MCF-7 and PBMC (*P < 0.05). This may cause a redox imbalance, significantly increasing the SOD activity in response to the production of high levels of ROI molecules and the lack of activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase may allow the toxic effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) leading to cell death [10]. The H2O2 causes cancer cells to undergo apoptosis, pyknosis, and necrosis. In contrast, normal cells are considerably less vulnerable to H2O2. The reason for the increased sensitivity of tumor cells to H2O2 is not clear but may be due to lower antioxidant defenses. In fact, a lower capacity to destroy H2O2 e.g., by catalase, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases may cause tumor cells to grow and proliferate more rapidly than normal cells in response to low concentrations of H2O2.

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