, 2010 and Tanti et al , 2012), and neurogenesis in the adult hip

, 2010 and Tanti et al., 2012), and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus (Tanti et al., 2012). Neurogenesis-ablated animals, even when in an environmental enrichment, presented a submissive behaviour (Schloesser et al., 2010), thus PD0325901 mouse confirming the importance

of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in response to stress and resilience to it. Housing animals in an enriched environment, including voluntary exercise, increases glucocorticoid levels (Stranahan et al., 2008, Vivinetto et al., 2013 and Zhang et al., 2013), leading to the suggestion that this increase is essential for increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis and stress resilience (Schloesser et al., 2010 and Sampedro-Piquero et al., 2014). In fact, when rats

are adrenalectomized, environmental enrichment-induced increases in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are no longer apparent (Lehmann et al., 2013), thus demonstrating the requirement of glucocorticoid action on facilitating adult hippocampal neurogenesis. On the other hand, the blunted glucocorticoid action in adrenalectomized animals with intact neurogenesis generates a resilient animal, increasing cell survival (Lehmann et al., 2013). This protective effect of adrenalectomy during EPZ-6438 ic50 stress is neurogenesis-dependent (Lehmann et al., 2013). Similarly, it has been reported that moderate increases in corticosterone by some protocols of chronic stress increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and promotes antidepressant-like behaviour (Parihar et al., 2011). Taken together, it appears that glucocorticoids,

the key substrates of the Isotretinoin stress response, play dual roles in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, reducing or increasing it depending upon the amount released and the environmental challenge and in parallel also play dual roles in both susceptibility and resilience to stress-induced changes in behaviour whereby both environmental enrichment and adrenalectomy can lead to stress-resilience. Taken together, the precise role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in stress susceptibility remains unclear as a lack of association as well as associations with both increased susceptibility and increased resilience have been reported. Discrepancies in the literature might be due to differences in the methodology used, such as species, type of stressor and method of ablation of neurogenesis. On the other hand, the presence of intact adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been shown to contribute to the protective effects of adrenalectomy and environmental enrichment against stress-induced changes in behaviour. Moreover, the use of genetic models supports the study of how some factors such as BDNF and cannabinoid signalling may influence adult hippocampal neurogenesis and stress susceptibility and these factors may be a future target for the treatment of stress-induced reductions in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and maladaptive behavioural responses. Fig.

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