“We assessed whether repeated arsenic exposure can decrease paracetamol-mediated antinociception by modulating serotonergic and endocannabinoid pathways. Rats were preexposed to elemental arsenic (4 ppm) as sodium arsenite through drinking water for 28 days. Next day paracetamol’s (400 mg/kg, oral) antinociceptive selleck compound activity was assessed through formalin-induced nociception. Serotonin content and gene expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT and CB1 receptors were evaluated in brainstem and frontal cortex. Arsenic decreased paracetamol-mediated analgesia. Paracetamol, but not arsenic, increased serotonin content in these regions. Arsenic attenuated paracetamol-mediated increase in serotonin level. Paracetamol did
not alter 5-HT1A expression, but caused down-regulation of 5-HT2A and up-regulation of CBI. receptors. Arsenic down-regulated these receptors. However, paracetamol-mediated down-regulation of 5-HT2A was more pronounced. Arsenic did not modify paracetamol’s effect on 5-HT1A expression, but reduced paracetamol-mediated down-regulation of 5-HT2A and reversed up-regulation of CB1 receptors. Results suggest arsenic reduced paracetamol-induced analgesia possibly by interfering with pronociceptive 5-HT2A and antinociceptive CB1 receptors. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“At present, the onset and progress of diabetes, and the efficacy of potential treatments, can only be assessed through indirect means, i.e. blood glucose, insulin, or Alisertib C-peptide
measurements. The development
of non-invasive and reliable methods for (1) quantification of pancreatic beta islet cell mass in vivo, (2) determining endogenous islet function and survival, and (3) visualizing the biodistribution, survival, and function of transplanted exogenous islets are critical to further advance both basic science research and islet cell therapy in diabetes. Islet cell imaging using EVP4593 magnetic resonance, bioluminescence, positron emission tomography, or single photon emission computed tomography may provide us with a directmeans to interrogate islet cell distribution, survival, and function. Current state-of-the-art strategies for beta-cell imaging are discussed and reviewed here in context of their clinical relevance. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Group A rotaviruses (RV-A) are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in children worldwide and genotype G9P is one of the five most common genotypes detected in humans. In order to gain insight into the degree of genetic variability of G9P strains circulating in Cameroon, stool samples were collected during the 1999-2000 rotavirus season in two different geographic regions in Cameroon (Southwest and Western Regions). By RT-PCR, 15 G9P strains (15/89 = 16.8%) were identified whose genomic configurations was subsequently determined by complete or partial gene sequencing. In general, all Cameroonian G9 strains clustered into current globally-spread sublineages of the VP7 gene and displayed 86.