“Vaccines intended to induce a cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell response are highly sought after. However, some of these vaccines can be problematic if they replicate in the host. An alternative
strategy is to exploit cross-presentation of exogenous antigens to express peptides on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. During cross-presentation, the delivered exogenous antigen can be taken up and processed through diverse mechanisms. Here, we will discuss the recent advances regarding the complex nature of the cross-priming process and the models that selleck kinase inhibitor reflect its relevance in vivo. Moreover, we summarize current data that explore potential adjuvants and vaccine vectors that deliver antigens to activate CD8+ T cells relying on cross-presentation.”
“Purpose: Elevated intraocular pressure is a crucial pathologic event for the development of glaucoma (GL). see more We have reported that nerve growth factor (NGF) reaches retinal cells and the optic nerve (ON) when applied to the eye. Whether ocular application of NGF prevents or reduces damage to retinal
ganglion cell (RGC) is not known.\n\nMethods: GL was induced in adult rats by the injection of hypertonic saline into the episcleral vein of the right eye and the left eye used as control. Rats were then treated daily with ocular application of NGF or vehicle solution for 7 weeks. Retinal and ON tissues were then used for structural, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies.\n\nResults: The injection of hypertonic saline into the episcleral vein led to progressive degeneration of RGCs, with the loss of nearly 40% of these cells after 7 weeks of treatment. This cellular loss is associated with the downregulation of NGF and NGF-receptor expression in the retina and ON of the glaucomatous eye and ocular treatment with NGF significantly reduced the deficit induced by GL.\n\nConclusions:
These findings indicate that NGF can exert protective action on RGC degeneration occurring in glaucomatous retina. We suggest that ocular NGF treatment might be a suitable pharmacologic approach to investigate protective mechanisms of degenerating RGCs.”
“Purpose: This study aimed at evaluating the pattern of changes in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor check details (PR) and the HER2 expression in primary and recurrent breast cancer. Methods: In the study, we analyzed the changes of the ER and PR and the HER2 immunohistochemical expression to identify the patterns of changes and the predictive factors for the changes in 153 patients with primary and recurrent breast cancer between 1991 and 2005. Results: There was a significant decrease in the positive rate of ER (50.3% to 38.6%, p<0.001), PR (43.8% to 26.8%, p= 0.0095) and the HER2 (40.3% to 36.3%, p<0.001) expression in the primary breast cancers and recurrent breast cancers. The rate of triple negativity (ER/PR/HER2: all negative) was increased from 25.8% to 43.5% (p<0.001). Among 44 (28.