Upon secretion, we show that RON8 within the MJ localizes to the

Upon secretion, we show that RON8 within the MJ localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the host plasma membrane. To examine AZD4547 research buy interactions between RON8 and the host cell, we expressed RON8 in mammalian cells and show that it targets to its site of action at the periphery in a manner dependent on the C-terminal portion

of the protein. The discovery of RON5 and RON8 provides new insight into conserved and unique elements of the MJ, furthering our understanding of how the MJ contributes to the intricate mechanism of Apicomplexan invasion.”
“Activity-dependent, bidirectional control of synaptic efficacy is thought to contribute to many forms of experience-dependent plasticity, including learning and memory. Although most excitatory synapses contain both AMPA and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs), most studies have focused on the plasticity of synaptic AMPARs, and on the pivotal role of NMDA receptors for its induction. Here we review evidence that synaptic NMDARs themselves are subject to long-term activity-dependent changes

by mechanisms that may differ from that of synaptic AMPARs. The bidirectional modulation of NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses is likely to have important functional implications for NMDAR-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity.”
“Polarization-sensitive AZD6094 nmr optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and near-infrared (NIR) imaging are promising new technologies under development for monitoring early carious lesions. Fluorosis is a growing problem in the United States, and the more prevalent mild fluorosis can be visually mistaken for early enamel demineralization. Unfortunately, there is little quantitative information available regarding the differences in optical properties of sound enamel, enamel

developmental defects, and caries. Thirty extracted human teeth with various degrees BLZ945 of suspected fluorosis were imaged using PS-OCT and NIR. An InGaAs camera and a NIR diode laser were used to measure the optical attenuation through transverse tooth sections (similar to 200 mu m). A digital microradiography system was used to quantify the enamel defect severity by measurement of the relative mineral loss for comparison with optical scattering measurements. Developmental defects were clearly visible in the polarization-resolved OCT images, demonstrating that PS-OCT can be used to nondestructively measure the depth and possible severity of the defects. Enamel defects on whole teeth that could be imaged with high contrast with visible light were transparent in the NIR. This study suggests that PS-OCT and NIR methods may potentially be used as tools to assess the severity and extent of enamel defects. (C) 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

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