These results suggest that preventing plasma endotoxin accumulati

These results suggest that preventing plasma endotoxin accumulation could have a beneficial impact on liver function for patients with cirrhosis with the potential to progress to hepatoma. TLR4, Toll-like receptor

4; DEN, diethylnitrosamine; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; EdU, 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine; H&E, hematoxylin and eosin; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling; ALT, alanine transarninase TNFα, tumor necrosis factor α; IL-6, Interleukin-6; SOD, superoxide dismutase; GSH, glutathione; buy Trametinib MDA, malondialdehyde; BHA, butylated hydroxyanisole; A20, TNFα-induced-protein 3; ChIP, chromatin immunoprecipitation. Pathogen-free male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 160-180 g) and male C57BL/6 mice (6-8 weeks old, weighing 16-20 g) were obtained from the Shanghai Experimental Center, Chinese Science Academy, Shanghai, and maintained at an animal facility selleck products under pathogen-free conditions. Male wild type (wt; C57BL/10SnJ), and TLR4-deficient (TLR4−/−; C57BL/10ScNJ) mice were obtained from the Model Animal Research Center of Nanjing University,

Nan Jing, China. All animals received humane care according to the criteria outlined in the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” prepared by the National Academy of Sciences and published by the NIH (publication 86-23 revised 1985). For detailed information related to animal experiments, 上海皓元 see the Supporting Experimental Procedures. All paraffin-embedded liver tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for analysis of morphologic changes. The primary antibodies were as follows: cyclin D1, phospho-c-Jun (Cell Signaling Technology) and F4/80 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA). Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining of paraffin-embedded slides (Calbiochem, La Jolla, CA). Proliferation was assessed by immunostaining for 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU; Ruibo Biotech, Guangzhou,

China) or Ki-67 (Labvision, Fremont, CA) staining. Recipient mice were lethally irradiated with 9.0 Gy at a rate of 70 cGy/minute using a cobalt-source gamma-irradiator (the Irradiation Center of the Second Military Medical University). Irradiated recipient mice were i.v. injected with approximately 1 × 107 bone marrow cells in 200 μL of PBS. They were subjected to DEN treatment 5 weeks after transplantation. To demonstrate the success of BMT in TLR4−/− and wt mice, the blood and bone marrow of the chimeric mice were collected, and genomic DNA was extracted for detection of the Tlr4 gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Data are expressed as means ± SE. Differences were analyzed by the Student t test, and P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Chronically exposing rats to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) provides a multistage hepatocarcinogenesis model for studying human HCC, which allows one to distinguish tumor initiation from promotion (Supporting Information Fig. 1A).

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