The structural analysis revealed a close proximity of T. denticola and P. gingivalis in the top layer of the biofilms, which might indicate a high pathogenic potential of these in vitro formed subgingival model biofilms. V. dispar appeared in the top layer as well, forming tight microcolonies. Figure 9 Schematic structure of the 10-species in vitro biofilms after 64 h of incubation in iHS medium. Distribution of the 10 species and EPS as observed by CLSM. The scale is not representative The use of 50% heat-inactivated
human serum in the growth medium improved the stability of the biofilms, resulting in significantly thicker biofilms. Under these conditions the fastidious T. denticola was able to establish in significantly higher densities compared to the media with 10% or no human serum. Surprisingly, neither P. gingivalis nor T. Selleck eFT-508 forsythia were affected by the concentration of human serum, and neither by the addition SGLT inhibitor of saliva. Methods Biofilm generation and fixation The biofilms used in this study are produced using
a similar protocol as described before . However, there are some key changes in the growth media and the strain composition that are described below. In the present study, Streptococcus oralis SK248 (OMZ 607), Streptococcus anginosus click here ATCC 9895 (OMZ 871), Actinomyces oris (OMZ 745; formerly Actinomyces naeslundii), Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum OMZ 598, Veillonella dispar ATCC 17748T (OMZ 493), Campylobacter rectus OMZ 698, Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611T (OMZ 278), Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277T (OMZ 925), Tannerella forsythia OMZ 1047, and Treponema denticola ATCC 35405T (OMZ 661) were used. All strains, except for T. forsythia and C. rectus, were maintained on Columbia blood agar (CBA). T. forsythia and T. denticola were maintained in liquid culture using the media outlined in Table 1. Prior to the onset of
biofilm experiments, all strains were transferred into adequate liquid media (Table 1) for two cycles of precultures. The slow growing T. forsythia, C. rectus and T. denticola were precultured for 64 h (first cycle), then diluted 1:2 in fresh media and incubated these for another 24 h (second cycle). All other strains were incubated over night (first cycle), diluted 1:10 in fresh media and incubated again for 8 h (second cycle). Prior to biofilm inoculation, all strains were adjusted to a defined optical density (OD550 = 1.0 except for C. rectus, T. denticola with OD550 = 0.5) and mixed in equal volumes. Sintered circular HA discs with a diameter of 10.6 mm (Clarkson Chromatography Products, South Williams-port, USA) were coated with 1:2 diluted saliva for pellicle formation. Discs were placed in 24-well polystyrene cell culture plates and covered with 1.5 ml of growth medium. In this study three different growth media, all based on mFUM , were used (Table 1).