The program MEME [27] was used to determine if any identified cro

The program MEME [27] was used to determine if any identified crossover sites were linked to a common sequence motif. These analyses support the hypothesis that recombination in vitro does not require specific target sequences and occurs at random sites across the genome. Genotypes associated with attachment efficiency Attachment efficiency 17DMAG mouse in the presence

or absence of centrifugation is a differentiating phenotype among C. trachomatis strains [22]. Strains of serovar L2 have a high rate of attachment in static culture, while the non-LGV serovars have a reduced ability to infect in the absence of centrifugation (Figure 6, [22]). We used a PCR-based analysis of attached EBs to examine the efficiency of attachment in our recombinant strains, relative to the parents of the crosses. Parental strains performed as predicted in these assays, with our serovar L2 strain having little dependence on centrifugation for attachment, while centrifugation enhanced attachment by both the serovar F and Serovar J parental strains (Figure 6). However, the different recombinant progeny strains showed variability in attachment efficiency relative to ompA genotype, with individual progeny strains reflecting

the attachment efficiency of either the Serovar L2 or serovar F/J parental strain. Figure 6 Attachment efficiency and subsequent Pitavastatin in vitro genomic analysis of parental and progeny recombinant strains. Panel A: Measurement of the attachment efficiency for parental and recombinant strains. The specific strains analyzed are represented on the x-axis (center of figure), and the percent attachment efficiency is represented on the y-axis. Dark gray bars represent parental strains, and light gray bars Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase represent recombinant strains. Panel B: The genotype of each strain for the 9 pmp genes and 3 other genes previously discussed as being associated with attachment are shown below each strain in graph. The colored boxes indicate the parental genotype of each gene, as indicated at the bottom of the figure. The pmp genes that are associated with attachment efficiency are indicated in

bold. Boxes containing two colors indicate that a crossover event occurred within the gene in this strain. A genome-wide association analysis was then used to determine if regions in the chlamydial genome could be associated with the observed attachment efficiency phenotype. Briefly, the sequenced recombinant genomes are aligned (12 recombinant strains and 3 parental strains), and every informative site (any position in the alignment where a different genotype is present) is analyzed using the Fisher’s exact test to determine if that genotype is associated with observed phenotype. Five genomic regions were identified that had the highest possible inverse Log p-value based on sample size and each observation group size (Additional file 1: Figure S1).

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