“The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been found to be ass

“The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been found to be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Reported associations have been questioned,

as they are opposite those for Alzheimer’s disease and cardiovascular disease. The authors examined associations between APOE genotype and AMD using a case-control study (2,287 cases and 2,287 controls individually matched on age, sex, and country of origin) nested within Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study participants aged 48-86 years at AMD detection. The odds ratio for early AMD among participants with epsilon 2-containing genotypes (epsilon 2 epsilon 2/epsilon 2 epsilon 3/epsilon 2 epsilon 4) was 1.32 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.58; P = 0.002) versus persons with genotype epsilon 3 epsilon 3. Associations with early AMD varied by smoking status; buy JNK inhibitor epsilon 2-containing genotypes were positively associated with early AMD for never and

previous smokers (never smokers: odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.76 (P = 0.003); previous smokers: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.93 (P = 0.05)) but not for current smokers (OR = 0.66, 95% selleck inhibitor CI: 0.34, 1.30 (P = 0.2; interaction P = 0.05). The epsilon 4-containing genotype group (epsilon 3 epsilon 4/epsilon 4 epsilon 4) had an inverse association with early AMD among current smokers only (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.77 (P = 0.005)). These results highlight the importance of stratifying by smoking status in elderly populations. Smokers who survive to old age may be more likely to possess unknown Selleck Screening Library genotypes which modify exposure-disease associations.”
“Background: The use of beta-blockers during the perioperative period remains controversial. Although

some studies have demonstrated their protective effects regarding postoperative cardiac complications, others have demonstrated increased mortality when beta-blockers were introduced before surgery.\n\nMethods: In this observational study involving 1,801 patients undergoing aortic reconstruction, we prospectively assessed beta-blocker therapy compared with no beta-blocker therapy, with regard to cardiac and noncardiac postoperative outcomes using a propensity score approach. The impact of beta-blockers was analyzed according to the intraoperative bleeding estimated by transfusion requirements.\n\nResults: In-hospital mortality was 2.5% (n = 45), beta-blocker use was associated with a reduced frequency of postoperative myocardial infarction (OR = 0.46, 95% CI [0.26; 0.80]) and myocardial necrosis (OR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.43; 0.88]) in all patients, but also with an increased frequency of multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (OR = 2.78, 95% CI [1.71; 4.61]). In patients with severe bleeding (n = 163; 9.1%), the frequency of in-hospital death (OR = 6.65, 95% CI [1.09; 129]) and/or multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (OR = 4.18, 95% CI [1.81; 10.

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