That white men relayed these accounts only validated them and so

That white men relayed these accounts only validated them and so confirmed the truth. The earliest mention appears to be by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794–1868), followed by similar reports by others, mainly German and French naturalists and explorers. They

include Eduard Friedrich Pöppig (1797–1868), Robert Hermann Schomburgk (1804–1865), Comte Francis de Castelnau (1812–1880),[9] Paul Marcoy, aka Laurent Saint-Cricq (1815–1888), Gustav Wallis (1830–1878),[10] Karl von den Steinen (1855–1929),[11, 12] and Jacques Pellegrin (1873–1944).[13] In addition, we read of explorers, medical men, and missionaries from Britain, Adriamycin Spain, and Portugal. Diligent literature searches locate historical

documents but there are conveniently summarized papers, the first by Carl Eigenmann.[14] Later reviews[15-18] are based firmly on Eugene Willis Gudger’s two landmark articles in the American Journal of Surgery (1930).[3, 4] Never having traveled himself, he wanted “to get to the truth” of the story and reviewed all accounts made available to him at the time. The following selleck chemicals llc selected excerpts of historical descriptions, taken from Gudger’s review, illustrate the alarm the fish caused during that era: “…with great violence it forces its way in and desiring to eat the flesh…,” “…has the habit of entering with great impetuosity and rapidity into the external openings of the human body…,” “…entered the urethra and rectum, chiefly if one while in the water should satisfy nature…,” “…little animal launches itself out of the water and penetrates the urethra by ascending the length of the liquid column…,” “…penetrates with eel-like nimbleness

into the orifices of bathers and causes many fatal accidents…,” “…horrible SPTLC1 sufferings which the introduction of this living needle may occasion…” To prevent mishap, local people were said to have used tight strings around the penis to avoid entry, or suitably fashioned penis covers (and a contraption for women) to the same effect. Treatment consisted of inserting pieces of the Huito fruit (Genipa americana) or drinking hot tea made of it, though many explorers have never heard of the fruit’s use for this purpose. [In 1945, Lins[19] reported on the candiru-dissolving method with the buitach apple (Huito) of “primitive peoples” in the Amazon. Using the principle of the fruit’s acidic property, he developed a synthetic formula to dissolve bladder incrustations via rectal (!) application.] Von den Steinen[11] recommended trying a hot bath to expel the troublemaker (Störenfried) before more drastic measures were attempted. Operations have reportedly taken place but much is hearsay, repeated over and over again by various authors. Surgical interventions are said to include extractions, suprapubic cystostomies, and penis amputations.

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