te virus binding to CLEC 2 positive cells The identification of

te virus binding to CLEC 2 positive cells. The identification of the respective factor and the clarifi figure 2 cation of the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries potential connection between podoplanin e pression and apoptosis are interesting tasks for future research. Background Cells of the monocyte macrophage lineage play a central role in HIV 1 infection and pathogenesis. In addition, macrophages play important roles for viral transmission and dissemination. Indeed, the primary infection is initiated and carried out by macrophage tropic viruses, which use, in addition to CD4, the CCR5 co receptor. Macrophages are also one of the main reservoirs of HIV 1. This latter property is related to the lack of viral cytopathic effects in macrophages which ensures their survival when compared to infected CD4 positive lym phocytes.

Furthermore, current therapies that tar get HIV 1 replication are not as efficient in macrophages as they are in lymphocytes. As a consequence, macrophages, in contrast to CD4 positive T cells, are not depleted during Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the course of HIV 1 infection. Thus, a better understanding of HIV 1 replication and the finding of efficient therapies for macrophages remain Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries major challenges. In addition to using CCR5 as the co receptor for entry into its cellular Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries targets, HIV 1 hijacks the underlying cel lular machinery. Interactions between the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein, CD4 receptor, and CCR5 co re ceptor trigger a signaling cascade, which is comparable to that observed with their natural ligands. Initiated through the G alpha proteins, these signals mobilize intracellular free calcium, translocate PKC, activate Pyk2, FAK.

Erk1 2, Rho GTPases, and decrease levels of intracellular cAMP. By facilitating the first steps of HIV 1 entry and trafficking in target cells, they play essential roles in the viral replicative Batimastat cycle. Among these pathways, PKC plays a critical role. In cells, where HIV 1 replicates efficiently, PKC must be acti vated. PKC isozymes, which are activated by interactions between CCR5 and HIV 1, play a major role in the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton that is required for viral entry. In addition to facilitat ing entry, via the phosphorylation of I��B, PKC stimulates Nuclear Factor ��B. NF ��B binds to the HIV 1 promoter and increases its transcription. PKC also activates AP 1 and NF AT which also bind to the HIV 1 promoter.

Moreover, PKC can phosphorylate a number of viral proteins such as p17Gag, Nef and Rev, although the func tional role Rucaparib IC50 for their phosphorylation is poorly understood. Eleven PKC isozymes have been described. They have been classified depending mainly on their mechanism of action. They differ also in their subcellu lar localization and substrate specificity. Different types of cells e press distinct PKC isozymes. Since PKC is trig gered via CCR5, it is critical to determine which PKC isozymes are stimulated and their roles in the HIV 1 replicative cycle. Of these, PKC delta plays a central role in the differenti ation of monocytes, which

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