(Shizuoka, Japan). Animals were given food and ultrafiltered water ad libitum, and were maintained on a 12-h/12-h light/dark cycle with lights on from 08:00 to 20:00 hours. The P. aeruginosa las quorum-sensing signal 3-oxo-C12-HSL was purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). A stock solution of 10 mM 3-oxo-C12-HSL was prepared by dissolution in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and stored in a −20 °C freezer. Just before administration to the animals, the stock solution was diluted to 10 μM with 0.9% sodium chloride. A pure DMSO solution diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride was used in a similar manner as a control. For in vitro experiment for immunocytochemistry analysis, 100 mM 3-oxo-C12-HSL
stock solution was used. Full-thickness wounds were created in both lateroabdominal regions using sterile scissors under sedation with an intraperitoneal injection of Somnopentyl Acalabrutinib mouse (pentobarbital sodium; Selleck BMN 673 Kyoritsu Seiyaku Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) (30 mg kg−1 body weight). The subcutaneous fat layer was completely dissected to expose the fascia. To investigate the effects of 3-oxo-C12-HSL on wound healing, we allowed granulation tissue to develop under moist conditions
using a transparent film dressing occlusion, and then challenged the granulation tissue with 3-oxo-C12-HSL on day 5 after wounding. Specifically, 100 μL of 10 μM 3-oxo-C12-HSL solution or control DMSO solution was administered to the surface of the granulation tissue using a micropipette.
This concentration was derived from the previous study, which demonstrated that the 10 μM 3-oxo-C12-HSL to the dermis could induce inflammatory cell infiltration and cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 induction (Smith et al., 2002a). The wound was covered with transparent film dressing after the administration. The wound area was measured every day until 9 days after wounding using image analysis software (imagej version 1.42; NIH, Bethesda, MD) and expressed as relative values to the initial wound area (Pietramaggiori et al., 2008). The experimental protocol was approved by the Animal Research Committee of The University of Tokyo. All animals were treated according to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the NIH. Wound samples were http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/Fludarabine(Fludara).html collected at 24 h after the 3-oxo-C12-HSL challenge. The collected samples were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate buffer, dehydrated with alcohol, cleared with xylene and processed for embedding in paraffin. Sections were prepared at 5-μm interval for hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. α-Smooth muscle actin immunostaining was performed as follows: the sections were incubated for 10 min with 3% H2O2 to quench the endogenous peroxidase activity. Between each set of the following steps, the sections were washed three times with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 5 min each.