S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for helpful comment

S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for helpful comments on the manuscript; Ana Rita de Cássia L. Vasconcelos and, most of all, the immunization program team of the Municipal Health Department of Salvador, Brazil. This study was supported by grants from the Bahia State Foundation for the support of research (PP-SUS0001/2009) and National Program of Post-doctoral (CAPES-PNPD 1472/2008). “
“Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have the potential to significantly reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in sub-Saharan Africa [1] and [2]. Two HPV vaccines have

selleck chemicals now been approved for use in many countries. These provide a high degree of protection against HPV 16/18 infections and associated cervical lesions [3], [4] and [5]. The World Health Organisation recommends offering HPV vaccine to girls at ages 9–14, prior to sexual debut, since the vaccine has highest efficacy if girls have not already acquired

HPV [6]. Many high-income countries and some middle-income countries have started national HPV vaccination programs, either school-based or on-demand programs, with vaccine coverage (completion of the 3-dose regimen) ranging from 9% (Greece) to 32% (US) and 76% (UK) [7], [8], [9] and [10]. INCB024360 mw In sub-Saharan Africa, two vaccine demonstration projects have been completed [11] and [12]; Rwanda has embarked on a national HPV vaccination programme [13] and [14], and Tanzania plans to start a similar programme in 2012. Research in Africa on HPV vaccine acceptability and delivery is needed to understand how best to deliver this vaccine to adolescent girls among populations who have little or no knowledge about cervical Bumetanide cancer, and may be suspicious of vaccines that target young women or a sexually transmitted infection (STI) [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21] and [22]. Between August 2010 and June 2011, in preparation for a national HPV immunisation program, a phase IV cluster-randomised trial (NCT01173900) in schoolgirls in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, was conducted to measure the

feasibility, uptake, and acceptability of two school-based HPV vaccine delivery strategies: age-based (all girls born in 1998) or class-based (all girls in Year 6 of primary school in 2010) [12]. We present findings from a qualitative sub-study conducted before the actual HPV vaccination started in August 2010. The sub-study’s objectives were to learn what people knew about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, whether they would find HPV vaccination acceptable, and how they viewed vaccine delivery and consent procedures. These findings were used to improve sensitisation and vaccination procedures within the trial and to assist preparations for a national HPV vaccination program. The qualitative sub-study study took place in the two districts of Mwanza city and a neighbouring rural district (Misungwi), between March and August 2010.

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