Patients with stage I disease had a 10-year probability of overall survival of 90% (77-100) and did not benefit from postoperative chemotherapy. By contrast, patients with stage II, III, and IV disease required combined treatment with surgery and chemotherapy; probability of overall survival at 10 years
was 52% (3-100) for patients with stage II disease and 49% (26-72) for stage III or IV disease. Outcome for patients who had recurrent or refractory disease was poor: only four (22%) patients achieved long-term survival beyond 60 months. Multivariate analysis showed that the only significant independent predictor of overall and recurrence-free survival ICG-001 chemical structure was time since antecedent pregnancy. A cutoff point of 48 months since antecedent pregnancy could differentiate between patients’ probability of survival (<48
months) or death (>= 48 months) with 93% specificity and 100% sensitivity, and with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 98%.
Interpretation Stage-adapted management with surgery for stage I disease, and combined surgery and chemotherapy for stage II, III, and IV disease could improve the effectiveness of treatment for placental-site trophoblastic tumours. Use of 48 months since antecedent pregnancy as a prognostic indicator of survival could help select patients for risk-adapted treatment.”
“OBJECTIVE: Neurosurgical patients have a high risk of hyponatremia and associated complications. We critically evaluated the existing literature to identify the determinants for the development of selleck screening library hyponatremia and which management strategies provided the best outcomes.
METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel in the areas of neurosurgery, nephrology, critical care medicine, endocrinology, pharmacy, and nursing Farnesyltransferase summarized and
classified hyponatremia literature scientific studies published in English from 1950 through 2008. The panel’s recommendations were used to create an evaluation and treatment protocol for hyponatremia in neurosurgical patients at the University of Florida.
RESULTS: Hyponatremia should be further investigated and treated when the serum sodium level is less than 131 mmol/L (class II). Evaluation of hyponatremia should include a combination of physical examination findings, basic laboratory studies, and invasive monitoring when available (class III). Obtaining levels of hormones such as antidiuretic hormone and natriuretic peptides is not supported by the literature (class III). Treatment of hyponatremia should be based on severity of symptoms (class III). The serum sodium level should not be corrected by more than 10 mmol/L/d (class III). Cerebral salt wasting should be treated with replacement of serum sodium and intravenous fluids (class III).