On the other hand, C-2-ceramide did not cleave caspase-3 or poly(ADP- ribose) polymerase and kept Beclin 1 and Atg5 proteins stable in p21(+/+) MEFs, events that this time culminated in autophagy. When expression of the p21 protein was inhibited by small interfering RNA or when the overexpression of Beclin 1 or Atg5 was induced, autophagy rather than apoptosis was initiated in the p21(+/+)
MEFs treated with C-2-ceramide. In contrast, the exogenous expression of p21 or the silencing of Beclin 1 and Atg5 with small interfering RNA increased the number of apoptotic cells and decreased Selleckchem Selonsertib the number of autophagic cells among C-2-ceramide-treated p21(+/+) MEFs. gamma-Irradiation, which endogenously generates ceramide, induced a similar tendency in these MEFs. These results suggest
that p21 plays an essential role in determining the type of cell death, positively for apoptosis and negatively find more for autophagy.”
“Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging field in minimally invasive surgery that is driving the development of new technology and techniques. There are several proposed benefits to the NOTES approach, including potentially decreased abdominal pain, wound infections, and hernia formation Ko and Kalloo (Chin J Dig Dis 7:67-70, 2006); Wagh et al. (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3(9):892-896, 2005); ASGE/SAGES Working Group on Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (Gastrointest
Endosc 63(2):199-203, 2006); and Pearl and Ponsky (J GI Surg 12:1293-1300, 2008). Cholecystectomy has been one of the most commonly performed NOTES procedures to date, with the majority being performed through the transvaginal approach Marescaux et al. (Arch Surg 142:823-826, 2007); Zorron et al. (Surg Endosc 22:542-547, 2008); and Ramos et al. (Endoscopy 40:572-575, 2008). Transgastric approaches for cholecystectomy have been shown to be technically feasible in animal models and in several Combretastatin A4 in vivo unpublished human patients Sumiyama et al. (Gastrointest Endosc 65(7):1028-1034, 2007). This video demonstrates the technique by which we perform transgastric NOTES hybrid cholecystectomy in human patients.\n\nPatients with symptomatic gallstone disease are enrolled under an IRB approved protocol. A diagnostic EGD is performed to confirm normal anatomy. Peritoneal access is gained using a needle-knife cautery and balloon dilation under laparoscopic visualization. Dissection of the critical view of safety is performed endoscopically. The cystic duct and artery are clipped laparoscopically and the gallbladder is dissected off of the liver. The gastrotomy is closed intralumenally and over-sewed laparoscopically. The gallbladder is extracted out the mouth.