On each trial, two displays were

observed through shutter

On each trial, two displays were

observed through shutter-glasses. In one display, a sphere moved along a linear path in the horizontal and depth dimensions. In the other display, the sphere moved from the same starting position to the same ending position as in the linear path, but moved G418 in vivo along an arc in depth. Observers were asked to indicate whether the first or second display simulated a curved trajectory. Adaptive staircases were used to derive the observers’ thresholds of curvature detection. In the first experiment, two independent variables were manipulated: viewing condition (binocular vs. monocular) and type of curvature (concave vs. convex). In the second experiment, three independent variables were manipulated: AZD3965 viewing condition, type of curvature, and whether the

motion direction was approaching or receding. In both experiments, detection thresholds were lower for binocular viewing conditions as compared to monocular viewing conditions. In addition, concave trajectories were easier to detect than convex trajectories. In the second experiment, the direction of motion did not significantly affect curvature detection. These results indicate the detection of curved motion paths from monocular information was improved when binocular information was present. The results also indicate the importance of the type of curvature, suggesting that the rate of change of disparity may be important in detecting curved trajectories.”
“SETTING: Royal Free Hospital, London.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between sputum mycobacterial load, assessed by time to positivity (TTP) in liquid culture, radiological cavitation and change in sputum bacterial load in response to anti-tuberculosis treatment.

DESIGN: The study was conducted on 95 patients treated for sputum culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), with pre-treatment TTP and baseline

chest X-ray (CXR). Of these, 31 had chest computed tomography scans assessed for number and volume of cavities. The microbiological treatment response was measured in 56 patients with serial TTP, and related to baseline radiological cavitation.

RESULTS: selleck screening library Cavitation was present in 48% of patients, and was associated with a shorter TTP at baseline (P < 0.001). Patients with more cavities and greater total cavitary volume had a shorter TTP (P < 0.001 for both). No difference was demonstrated in the rate of change in TTP on treatment (P = 0.36) between patients with and without cavities.

CONCLUSION: This study confirms that cavitation is associated with higher baseline sputum mycobacterial load. The rate of decline in bacterial load in response to treatment is similar in patients with and without radiologically demonstrable cavities, suggesting that response to, and hence duration of, effective treatment may be predicted by the initial number of organisms present in the sputum.

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