New Zealand Black/New Zealand White (NZB/NZW) mice, a murine lupu

New Zealand Black/New Zealand White (NZB/NZW) mice, a murine lupus model, had higher Fli-1

mRNA expression in splenic lymphocytes than normal control mice [6]. Two- to threefold overexpression of Fli-1 protein in transgenic mice resulted in the development of a lupus-like disease [7]. The phenotype of the Fli-1 transgenic mice included autoantibody production, renal deposition of immune complexes, glomerulonephritis, hypergammaglobulinaemia, an increased number of autoreactive T and B lymphocytes, and increased mortality [7]. Targeted disruption of the Fli-1 Lenvatinib solubility dmso gene resulted in haemorrhage into the neural tube and embryonic death due in part to thrombocytopenia and inadequate vascular formation [8,9]. Heterozygous (Fli-1+/−) mice develop normally. The expression level of Fli-1 protein, including immune cells, in Fli-1+/− mice is half that found in Fli-1+/+ wild-type (WT) mice [8]. Murphy Roths Large (MRL)/MpJ-Faslpr (MRL/lpr) mice have many clinical manifestations found in human SLE [10]. Autoantibodies produced by these mice are similar in spectrum to those seen in human lupus including anti-double-stranded this website DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies and anti-Sm antibodies [10]. MRL/lpr mice

develop proliferative glomerulonephritis at an early age (4–5 months) and renal failure is a primary cause of death in these mice [10]. The lpr (lymphoproliferation) phenotype is due to a defect in the fas gene, a key mediator of apoptosis [11,12]. We found that MRL/lpr mice had higher splenic Fli-1 protein expression than normal control BALB/c mice as early as 10 weeks of age [13]. We generated Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice with 50% reduced expression of Fli-1 protein and found that Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice had significantly lower serum autoantibodies and proteinuria than littermate WT MRL/lpr Carnitine dehydrogenase mice [13]. Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice had significantly reduced pathological renal disease and markedly prolonged survival compared to WT MRL/lpr mice. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation

is used to investigate the contribution of haematopoietic versus non-haematopoietic cell lineages in autoimmune disease development [14,15]. In this study, our aim was to investigate whether BM-derived cells play a role in the profound improvement of renal disease and survival in Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice. We hypothesized that, due to the more profound impact of Fli-1 deficiency on renal disease and survival than on autoantibody production, both haematopoietic cell lineages and non-haematopoietic lineages would have a greater impact on disease expression. We performed BM transplantation from Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice to WT MRL/lpr mice, as well as the reverse transplant, and evaluated disease development in these mice.

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