In the case of the rPsaA immunized mice, no functional anti-PS an

In the case of the rPsaA immunized mice, no functional anti-PS antibodies were detected. Anti-PsaA antibodies have shown to be opsonophagocytic [58]. The standard and modified OPA in this study were not optimum Crizotinib clinical trial for measuring the functional

antibodies to PsaA. An assay utilizing adherence to human cells may also be used for the detection of functional anti-PsaA antibodies [59]. Even though the mouse model is well established [15] and [35], the murine susceptibility to S. pneumoniae varies primarily because S. pneumoniae does not naturally colonize in mice [51] and [60]. The variation we have observed in our colony counts from one serotype to another may be due to differences in susceptibility. The type of mouse buy ABT-199 strain and phenotype of the bacteria used also may contribute to this varying susceptibility. McCool and Weiser observed differences in density and length of Pnc colonization among three murine strains [51]. The transparent phenotype is thought to play the main role in Pnc colonization, although mixed phenotypes naturally occur in the nasopharynx and in murine colonization studies [25], [51] and [61]. This study demonstrates immunization of mice simultaneously

with rPsaA and PCV7 reduces colonization of non-PCV serotype (19A) without inhibiting immunogenicity of either immunogen. Additional colonization studies with other non-PCV serotypes should be performed to determine whether co-administering rPsaA with PCV7 does further expand coverage to other non-PCV serotypes. If so, the inclusion of additional serotypes to Pnc Ps vaccines may not be necessary for the expansion of protection. This research was supported in part by an appointment of M.J. Whaley to the Emerging Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program administered by the Association of Public Health Laboratories and funded by CDC. We thank

Yvonne Reed and Kay Montgomery for the daily care of the animals and sharing their expertise. The findings of this study are those crotamiton of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of CDC. “
“Human infection with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was first identified in April 2009 [1] and on June 11, 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic by raising the worldwide pandemic alert level to phase 6. This novel strain is antigenically and genetically distinct from other H1N1 influenza strains that have been in circulation since 1977 [2]. Consequently, most of the world’s population is thought to have had little or no pre-existing antibody against the pandemic strain. Indeed, serological studies have detected cross-reactive antibodies to the A (H1N1) 2009 virus in 6–9% of adults aged 18–64 years and 33% of adults older than 60 years [3] and [4]. In accordance with WHO recommendations, pandemic influenza vaccines were manufactured using the A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) strain.

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