ic pathways and cellular

ic pathways and cellular found and physiologi cal processes. The number of genes identified in our study was consistent with other reports suggesting that at least 5,000 and 4,500 to 8,000 different genes could be expressed, respectively in maize and wheat endo sperms cDNA libraries. These numbers were also considered a minimal estimate in a similar investi gation previously reported in maize. To validate the observed alterations in developing endosperms, we have used qRT PCR, which confirmed that the observations regarding transcript accumulation were accurate and consistent with the findings of other laboratories under taking similar studies. They also take into account sources of variation inherent to microarray experiments.

Thus, we are confident that the alterations of the transcriptomes described here are consistent with the biology of endosperm develop ment and are Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries both real and significant. In agreement with previous results regarding the ana lysis of a range of opaque mutants with an Affimetrix GeneChip, our transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that the o2 and o7 mutants here investigated are very pleiotropic and influence several metabolic processes occurring in Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the developing endo sperm. The degree of the pleiotropic effect varied among the mutants, o7 has the smallest effect on global ela tively small differences in protein and amino acid com position in this mutant compared to the wild type. By contrast, the large changes in protein and amino acid synthesis in o2, replicated also in the o2o7 double mutant, are associated with large changes in the patterns of gene expression.

Although, the type of microarray analysis discussed in this paper does not distinguish between direct Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and indir ect effects, making it difficult Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries to conclude whether and how a TF interacts with a potential target gene, the ana lyses of the changes in the transcription profiles of the o2 and o7 mutants allow us to formulate predictions regarding the biological role of these loci in endosperm metabolism. First, our findings are consistent with the role of O2 as a transcriptional activator. In fact, the O2 protein is known to regulate the expression of genes that encode the 22 kDa a zein gene family. More over, it controls the expression of other non storage protein genes. Sec ond, one of the pathways affected by O2 activity is amino acid biosynthesis.

It has been shown that O2 reg ulates the levels of lysine ketoglutamate reductase, aspartate kinase, acetohydroxyacid synthase, an enzyme catalyzing the first common step in the synthesis of branched chain amino acids, and cyPPDK1, a key regulator of the glycolytic pathway, linked to C and Cilengitide amino acid metabolism and to the starch protein bal ance. This associated with its structural and functional similarity to GCN4, a general transcrip tion factor regulating amino acid biosynthesis in yeast, reinforces the hypothesis that O2 may be indeed involved in general www.selleckchem.com/products/Belinostat.html amino acid control in maize endosperm. In the current study, the tra

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