However, infrared thermography can be used also to discover defec

However, infrared thermography can be used also to discover defects in buildings envelope, to monitor reinforcing steel in concrete, to detect moisture inside building selleck catalog walls, and so forth [6�C8]. It is known that masonry structures deteriorate over time mainly due to natural forces of decay, due to thermal stresses, and due to water infiltration; the main degradation effects include variations in concrete compaction and voiding, spalling or microcracking in masonry, and reinforcement deterioration and this may be of great concern if the structure belongs to the cultural heritage. Indeed, IRT represents a valuable tool for nondestructive evaluation of architectonic structures and artworks because it is capable of giving indication about most of the degradation sources of artworks and buildings of both historical interest and civil use.

In particular, by choosing the most adequate thermographic technique, it is possible to monitor the conservation state of artworks in time and to detect the presence of many types of defects (e.g., voids, cracks, disbonding, etc.) in different types of materials [9, 10]. It is possible to inspect either a large surface, such as the facade of a palace, or a very small surface of only few square millimetres. The main advantages of infrared thermography when dealing with precious artworks may be summarized in three words: noncontact, noninvasive, and two dimensional. Long-term conservation of artworks involves periodic inspection to evaluate existing conditions, to discover deficiencies at an incipient stage, and to plan restoration before catastrophic failure occurs.

In this context, infrared thermography (IRT), as a remote imaging system, represents a powerful tool to be used for quick periodic inspection. The images can be stored in a digital format and a history of the material degradation can be easily examined and visualized as well as compared to a previous situation by retrieval of archived images. It is known that IRT has some limitations when dealing with deep and low thermal resistance defects, but it has proved to still be useful in conjunction with high-depth techniques [11�C13].This work would be an overview of some of the applications of infrared thermography to the architectural field performed at the Aerospace Engineering Section of the Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, to which the author belongs.

The results shown herein come from laboratory tests as well as in situ inspection of civil buildings and of important artworks such as the mosaic of the Battle of Issus in the Archaeological Anacetrapib Museum of Naples and frescoes in the Villa Imperiale in Pompeii. 2. Instrumentation and Test ProcedureTests were carried out by using pulse and lock-in techniques and different cameras which include both cooled and uncooled detectors.

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