Furthermore the supplement group had an increase in serum creatin

Furthermore the supplement group had an increase in serum creatinine but not creatinine clearance suggesting no negative effect on renal function. Cornelissen et al [80] analyzed the effects

of 1 week loading protocol (3 X 5 g/d CM) followed by a 3 month maintenance period (5 g/d) on cardiac patients BIX 1294 nmr involved in an endurance and resistance training program. Although CM supplementation did not significantly enhance performance, markers of renal and liver function were within normal ranges indicating the safety of the applied creatine supplementation protocol. A retrospective study [81], that examined the effects of long lasting (0.8 to 4 years) CM supplementation on health markers and prescribed training benefits, suggested that

there is no negative health effects (including muscle cramp or injuries) caused by long term CM consumption. In addition, despite many anecdotal claims, it appears that creatine supplementation would have positive influences on muscle cramps and dehydration [82]. Creatine was found to increase total body water possibly by decreasing the risk of dehydration, reducing sweat rate, lowering core body temperature and exercising heart rate. Furthermore, creatine supplementation does not increase symptoms nor negatively affect hydration or thermoregulation status of athletes exercising in the heat [83, 84]. Additionally, CM ingestion has been shown to reduce the rate of perceived exertion when training in the heat [85]. It is prudent to note that creatine

supplementation has been shown to reduce the body’s endogenous LDN-193189 ic50 production of creatine, however levels return to normal after a brief period of time when supplementation ceases [1, 6]. Despite this creatine supplementation has not been studied/supplemented with for a relatively long period. Due to this, long term effects Oxaprozin are unknown, therefore safety cannot be guaranteed. Whilst the long term effects of creatine supplementation selleck inhibitor remain unclear, no definitive certainty of either a negative or a positive effect upon the body has been determined for many health professionals and national agencies [19, 78]. For example the French Sanitary Agency has banned the buying of creatine due to the unproven allegation that a potential effect of creatine supplementation could be that of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity from the production of heterocyclic amines [78]. Long term and epidemiological data should continue to be produced and collected to determine the safety of creatine in all healthy individuals under all conditions [78]. Conclusion and practical recommendations The above review indicates that creatine supplementation has positive effects on: Amplifying the effects of resistance training for enhancing strength and hypertrophy [5, 22, 28]. Improving the quality and benefits of high intensity intermittent speed training [21]. Improving aerobic endurance performance in trials lasting more than 150s [7].

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