Five randomly selected plantlets per treatment were collected at

Five randomly selected plantlets per treatment were collected at 6, 24 or 48 h postinoculation. The root

material was weighed before being homogenized in 1 mL of sterile phosphate buffer. Selleck Palbociclib Serial dilutions were then inoculated onto sterile MMAB plates placed to incubate at 28 °C. Colonization was estimated as CFU g−1 of fresh root material. A one-tailed t-test assuming equal variances and P < 0.05 (Microsoft Excel) was used to assess statistical significance of differences in attachment and colonization between the strains. Attachment of A. brasilense to glass or PVLC surfaces was first analyzed under different growth and incubation conditions. Attachment to glass was not significant irrespective of the growth conditions or the incubation time (data not shown). This was confirmed by AFM (Supporting Information, Fig. S1) and topographic analysis of the surfaces (Fig. S2), suggesting that the physical surface properties of glass do KPT-330 concentration not facilitate attachment

for A. brasilense. Growth conditions mediating surface attachment (biofilm) in A. brasilense were thus subsequently analyzed only on PVLC surfaces. Attachment was found to increase when the experiments were conducted under low aeration (i.e. nonshaking) conditions with cells transferred from culture in a rich medium (TY) to a minimal media (data not shown). No significant effect of varying the concentrations of either phosphorous or potassium, found to increase attachment in other bacterial species (Danhorn & Fuqua, 2007) could be detected (data not shown). When biofilm formation was monitored in media lacking nitrogen or containing

relatively low concentrations (1 mM) of NH4Cl or NaNO3, surface adherence for all strains was greater compared with higher concentrations (10 mM) of NH4Cl C59 datasheet or NaNO3, respectively (Table 2). Biofilm formation was the greatest for all strains with low concentrations of sodium nitrate. Differences seen initially between strains remained unchanged over time, although overall biofilm formation was increased at day 7 (Table 2). Nutritional conditions were previously shown to be powerful modulators of the attachment of various bacterial species to surfaces but specific effects of nitrogen availability on attachment have been seldom noted (O’Toole et al., 2000; Rinaudi et al., 2006; Danhorn & Fuqua, 2007). Compared with the parental strain Sp7 and regardless of the incubation conditions, the AB101 and AB102 strains showed a consistent greater attachment to PVLC surfaces. Different attachment abilities detected for these strains was apparent early (day 1) suggesting that the initial surface attachment step was affected (Table 2).

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